A&P II chp25

  1. Other names for digestive system...
    Gastrointestinal (GI) tract or alimentary tract
  2. 4 layers of the digestive tract wall...
    • Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, & serosa 
    • (inner to outer)
  3. Boundaries of oral cavity/buccal cavity:
    Lips surrounding by the orifice of the mouth (anterior) the cheeks (side walls) the tongue and its muscles (floor) and the hard & soft palate (roof)
  4. main organs of digestive system from the GI tract extend through:
    The abdominopelvic cavity
  5. Cheeks are formed by ____ and contain___.
    Buccinator muscle; mucus-secreting glands
  6. Hard palate consists of 4 bones:
    2 maxillae & 2 palatines
  7. Soft palate forms a partition btw: 
    The mouth and nasopharynx
  8. Tongue is a solid mass of skeletal muscle and has what 3 parts?
    • Root, body, & tip 
    • (back to front)
  9. Papillae are rough elevations on the lateral and dorsal surface of the tongue & possess sensory organs called taste buds. What are the 4 types of papillae?
    Circumvallate (v shape, back), foliate (side), filiform (body), & fungiform (tip)
  10. Taste buds are located:
    In a moatlike depression on lateral surfaces of papillae & on sides of fungiform papillae<--(which are chiefly on the sides and tip)
  11. What anchors the tongue to the floor Of the mouth?
    Lingual frenulum
  12. Tongue intrinsic muscles are important for...
    Speech and mastication
  13. Tongue extrinsic muscles are important for...
    Deglutition(swallowing) and speech
  14. 3 types of salivary glands?
    • Parotid (produce watery saliva containing enzymes), submandibular (compound glands), & sublingual (produce a mucous type of saliva)
    • (largest to smallest)
  15. Inflammation of parotid glands is called...
    Mumps or parotitis 
  16. 3 parts of the typical tooth:
    • Crown (exposed portion), neck (joins the crown & root, surroundEd by gingivae) & root (fits in the alveolar process socket)
    • (outer to inner)
  17. tooths outer shell contains 2 tissues:
    Dentin (greatest portion of shell) & pulp cavity (in dentin)
  18. Deciduous teeth:
    Permanent teeth:
    • 20 baby teeth
    • 32 teeth
  19. Pharynx:
    Tube though which a food bolus passes when moving from mouth to esophagus by process of deglutition.
  20. Esophagus:
    First segment of digestive tube; extends from the pharynx to the stomach. Lies posterior to the trachea 
  21. 3 divisions of stomach:
    • Fundus (above the opening of esophagus into stomach), body, & pylorus
    • (highest to lower part)
  22. What controls the opening of the esophagus into the stomach?
    Lower esophagus sphincter (LES) or cardiac sphincter 
  23. What controls the outlet of pyloric portion of stomach into duodenum?
    Pyloric sphincter
  24. Gastric mucosa of stomach wall:
    -epithelial lining has rugae marked by gastric pits. -Gastric glands are below the level of the pits & secretes most of gastric juice. -Chief cells secrete enzymes of gastric juice. -Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid. -Endocrine cells secrete gastrin & ghrelin
  25. Gastric muscularis of call wall: 
    Thick layer of smooth muscle tissue arranged in crisscrossing pattern which allows stomach to contract strongly at many angles.
  26. Depressions w/in the epithelial lining of the stomach?
    Gastric pits
  27. 3 divisions of small intestine:
    Duodenum (uppermost layer; C shaped), jejunum, & ileum
  28. Villi of small intestine wall are...
    Projections of mucosal layer of small intestine. Produce enzymes in the brush border cells toward the top of villi. 
  29. The presence of villi and microvilli...
    Increase the surface area of the small intestine
  30. Crypts are located btw villi and they contain...
    Stem cells from which other cells types are produced & then migrate upward to cover the villi, then slough off
  31. Divisions of large intestine:
    • Cecum, colon, & rectum
    • (first to last part)
  32. 4 divisions of colon:
    Ascending colon (right; has ileocecal valve prevents material from passing from large intestine into ileum), Transverse colon (horizontal and above small intestine), Descending colon (vertical; left of abdomen), & Sigmoid colon (joins descending colon to rectum)
  33. Rectum:
    7 to 8 inches; opening called anus
  34. Vermiform appendix:
    attached to the cecum and near the ileocecal valve; accessory organ
  35. Appendix:
    Serves as a breeding ground for some nonpathogenic intestinal bacteria to aide in digestion and absorption of nutrients 
  36. Pouchlike rings in the large intestines formed by the taeniae coli and circular muscles?
    Haustra (the little bubblelike projections on large intestine)
  37. Lesser curvature:
    greater curvature:
    • Upper right curve of stomach
    • lower left curve of stomach
  38. Peritoneum:
    Large, continuous sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
  39. Continuation of serosa of greater curvature & has spotty deposits of fat giving it a appearance of a lace apron hanging over the intestines?
    Greater omentum
  40. Bile ducts; Largest organ/gland in body & 1.5kg. Lies under diaphragm. Occupies most of the right hypochondrium and part of epigastrium?
    The liver (filter)
  41. bile breaks down ____.
  42. Functions of the liver:
    • -Detoxification
    • -Secrete bile
    • -Liver metabolism (proteins, fats, carbs)
    • -Stores iron and vitamins
    • -Produce plasma protein -Serves as site of hematopoiesis during fetal development
  43. Bile salts are formed in liver from...
  44. Function of gallbladder:
    • -storage of bile
    • -concentration of bile fivefold to tenfold
    • -ejection of concentrated bile into duodenum 
  45. Route of bile from gallbladder to duodenum:
    Cystic duct, common bile duct, & then injection into the duodenum at the greater duodenal papilla
  46. Runs from duodenum and behind stomach to spleen; grayish pink color gland; only organ that makes endocrine cells 
  47. Structures of pancreas:
    Exocrine- makes up majority of pancreas, has acinar units, tiny ducts

    Endocrine-embedded btw exocrine units; called pancreatic islets; made up of alpha & beta cells 
  48. Acinar units of pancreas secretes the...
    Digestive enzymes found in pancreatic juice.
  49. Beta cells secrete...
    Alpha cells secrete...
    • -Insulin
    • -glucagon 
  50. Mesentery:
    projection of parietal peritoneum; allows Free movement of each coil of the intestine and helps prevent strangulation of the long tube
Card Set
A&P II chp25
A&P II chp25