chem 101 lecture 2

  1. Electron
    Negatively charged subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom
  2. Proton
    Positively charged subatomic particle that is located in the nucleus of an atom.
  3. Neutrons
    Uncharged subatomic particles that hold protons and electrons together. (protons repell other protons..)
  4. Atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus (number at top of element square in periodic table.)
  5. Z
    Number of protons
  6. A
    A= mass number = number of nucleons = # of protons +neutrons.
  7. finding z and a
    • Example:
    • Flourine 9p
    •              9e
    •            10n
    • Z=9 A= 19
  8. Valence electrons
    These are the outer most electrons. they are the most chemically important. this number is the  small number for the groups on the periodic table (1- 8)
  9. Neutrons
    can be found by subtracting bottom number from top number in periodic table.
  10. Noble gas atoms
    They are stable and will not react with other atoms. They all have 8 valence electrons except for helium which has 2.
  11. Unit
    • There are no joined molecules. Metal paired with non metal is a good indicator. Example
    • NaCl Na+Cl
  12. Octet / noble gas rule
    Unstable atoms react to reach a stable state that has the same number of electrons as the nearest (by atomic number in periodic table) noble gas... valence electrons can be transferred
  13. ionic bond
    Results from transfer of electrons between metals (cation) and non metals (anion)
  14. Covalent bonds
    sharing of electrons between non metals
  15. General properties of ionic compounds
    • Usually found as solid
    • needs very high temp to become l or g
    • many dissolve in water
  16. Polyatomic ions
    a charged species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts.
  17. Hydronium ion
  18. Hydroxide ion
  19. Ammonium ion
  20. Acetate ion
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chem 101 lecture 2
lecture two quiz one chem 101