Gram Negative Bacteria

  1. What are the different gram negative bacteria?
    • Pasteurella
    • Haemophilus
    • Bordetella
    • Actinobacillus
    • Pseudomonas
    • Aeromonas
    • Moraxella
    • Enterobacteriaceae
  2. What kind of invader is Pasteurella?
    usually a secondary invader, but can be a primary invader too
  3. What can Pasteurella cause?
    • snuffles in rabbits
    • severe mastitis in cattle and sheep
    • hemorrhagic septicemia
    • shipping complex in cattle
    • found in bite wounds in dogs and cats
  4. How can cattle get shipping fever complex?
    • transportation
    • dehorning
    • castration
    • weaning
    • adverse weather
    • starvation
  5. How is shipping fever complex transmitted?
    • direct contact
    • aerosol
  6. What are the clinical signs of shipping fever?
    • high fever
    • anorexia
    • dyspnea
    • coughing
    • nasal discharge
    • pneumonia
  7. Where is Haemophilus found?
    • commensal in prepuce of dogs
    • commensal on mucous membranes of respiratory tract and genital tract
  8. What can Haemophilus cause?
    meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and conjunctivitis in cattle
  9. How is Haemophilus transmitted?
    transmission is unknown but thought to be aerosol
  10. Where is Bordetella found?
    • commensal in upper respiratory tract of dogs and swine
    • often a secondary invader of dogs with distemper
  11. What is another name for Bordetella in dogs?
    kennel cough
  12. What are the clinical signs of kennel cough?
    • tracheobronchitis
    • honking non-productive cough
    • exercise intolerance
  13. How does Bordetella affect swine?
    • atrophic rhinitis
    • affect turbinates, get upward or lateral deviation of the nose
  14. Where do we find Actinobacillus? And how does disease occur?
    • in oral cavity of healthy animals and rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats
    • disease occurs with oral trauma
  15. What is Actinobacillus called in cattle?
    wooden tongue 
  16. Describe wooden tongue.
    • granulomas and abscesses
    • enlarged tongue
    • inability to prehend food
    • excess salivation
  17. Actinobacillus is commonly seen in _____ foals.
  18. How can foals become infected with Acinobacillus?
    can become infected at birth through the umbilicus
  19. Actinobacillus can be a purulent infection of _____ and _____.
    • joints
    • kidneys
  20. What produces enzymes that play a role in production of disease?
  21. Where do we commonly find Pseudomonas?
    common inhabitant of the soil and nasal cavity
  22. What does Pseudomonas infect in dogs?
    • wounds
    • ears and urinary tract in dogs
  23. What does Pseudomonas affect in horses?
    respiratory tract
  24. What does Pseudomonas cause in cattle?
    • mastitis
    • abortion
    • traumatic pericarditis
  25. What color does Pseudomonas produce on the agar?
    blue green pigment
  26. What kind of odor does Pseudomonas have?
    fruity odor
  27. Is Pseudomonas easy or difficult to treat?
  28. What can grow in gasoline?
  29. What species does Aeromonas affect?
    • fish
    • reptiles
    • mammals
    • amphibians
  30. What is another name for Moraxella?
    infectious keratoconjunctivitis in cattle - pink eye
  31. What are the clinical signs of infectious keratoconjunctivitis?
    • serous ocular discharge
    • later becomes mucopurulent
    • cloudiness to cornea
    • bloodshot eyes
    • squinting - photophobia
  32. What time of the year is Moraxella the most common?
  33. What type of cattle are more susceptible to Moraxella?
    white faced cattle
  34. How do cattle get Moraxella?
    • flies carry ocular discharge from one cow to another
    • cows rubbing on each other or other objects can transmit the disease
  35. Where in the body is Enterobacteriaceae found?
    intestinal bacteria
  36. What happens to Enterobacteriaceae after death?
    • after death, the bacteria rapidly invade the surrounding tissues
    • if necropsy is done several hours after death, Enterobacteriaceae outside of the intestines should be interpreted with caution
  37. What are the different kinds of Enterobacteriaceae?
    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella
    • Klebsiella
    • Proteus
    • Serratia
    • Enterobacter
  38. What does Escherichia coli cause?
    • calf and piglet scours
    • mastitis
    • urinary tract infections in dogs
    • enterotoxemia in foals
  39. How many types of Salmonella are there?
    more than 100
  40. What does Salmonella do to younger animals?
    • septic form
    • mortality nearly 100%
    • may not see diarrhea
  41. What does Salmonella cause in older animals?
    acute enteritis
  42. What are the clinical signs of Salmonella enteritis?
    • severe watery diarrhea
    • high fever
    • feces has putrid odor
    • may contain mucus
    • chronic form - diarrhea, emaciation, intermittent fever
  43. What does Klebsiella cause in cattle, pigs, and horses?
    • mastitis
    • cervicitis
    • metritis
    • septicemia in foals
  44. What does Klebsiella cause in dogs?
  45. Describe Proteus while culturing it.
    • swarming growth on culture media
    • distinct putrid odor on media
  46. What can Proteus cause in dogs?
    • cystitis and urinary infections
    • ear infections
  47. What can Proteus cause in cats?
    ear infections
  48. What can Proteus cause in younger animals?
    possibly diarrhea
  49. What does Serratia look like at room temperature?
    produces a red pigment
  50. What does Serratia cause?
    nosocomial infections - urinary and respiratory tracts
  51. What are the two types of Enterobacter?
    • Enterobacter aerogenes
    • Enterobacter cloaceae
  52. Where do we find Enterobacter?
    • human skin
    • fruits
    • vegetables
    • equipment
Card Set
Gram Negative Bacteria