"Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 6-week period. (p. 153)"
"A primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease whose development is influenced by genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors (same as psychologic dependence). (p. 156)"
Adjuvant analgesic drugs
"Drugs that are added as a second drug for combined therapy with a primary drug and may have additive or independent analgesic properties, or both. (p. 152)"
A substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response. (p. 158)
Substances that bind to a receptor and cause a partial response that is not as strong as that caused by an agonist (also known as a partial agonist). (p. 158)
Analgesic ceiling effect
What occurs when a given pain drug no longer effectively controls a patient's pain despite the administration of the highest safe dosages. (p. 158)
Medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness (sometimes referred to as painkillers). (p. 152)
A drug that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response. (p. 158)
Pain that occurs between doses of pain medication. (p. 157)
Pain resulting from any of a variety of causes related to cancer and/or the metastasis of cancer. (p. 154)
Pain resulting from any disorder that causes central nervous system damage. (p. 154)
"Persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to treat. Includes any pain lasting longer than 3 to 6 months, pain lasting longer than 1 month after healing of an acute tissue injury, or pain that accompanies a nonhealing tissue injury. (p. 153)"
Pain that occurs in tissues below skin level; opposite of superficial pain. (p. 154)
The most common and well-described theory of pain transmission and pain relief. It uses a gate model to explain how impulses from damaged tissues are sensed in the brain. (p. 154)
"A legal term established under the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914. It originally applied to drugs that produce insensibility or stupor, especially the opioids (e.g., morphine, heroin). Currently used in clinical settings to refer to any medically used controlled substances and in legal settings to refer to any illicit or �street� drug. (Note: This term is falling out of use in favor of opioid and will not be used in this text.)"
Pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve. (p. 154)
Processing of pain signals in the brain that gives rise to the feeling of pain. (p. 153)
A subclass of sensory nerves (A and C fibers) that transmit pain signals to the central nervous system from other body parts. (p. 153)
Analgesics that are not classified as opioids. (p. 153)
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
"A large, chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also possess antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity but are not steroids. (p. 154)"
Synthetic drugs that bind to opiate receptors to relieve pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant. (p. 152)
Describes patients who are receiving opioid analgesics for the first time and who therefore are not accustomed to their effects. (p. 161)
"A normal physiologic condition that results from long-term opioid use, in which larger doses of opioids are required to maintain the same level of analgesia and in which abrupt discontinuation of the drug results in withdrawal symptoms (same as physical dependence). (p. 156)"
The opposite of opioid naive; describes patients who have been receiving opioid analgesics (legally or otherwise) for a period of time (1 week or longer) and who are therefore at greater risk of opioid withdrawal syndrome upon sudden discontinuation of opioid use. (p. 157)
The signs and symptoms associated with abstinence from or withdrawal of an opioid analgesic when the body has become physically dependent on the substance. (p. 161)
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. (p. 152)
The level of a stimulus that results in the sensation of pain. (p. 153)
The amount of pain a patient can endure without its interfering with normal function. (p. 153)
A drug that binds to a receptor and causes an activation response that is less than that caused by a full agonist (same as antagonist-antagonist). (p. 158)
Pain experienced in the area of a body part that has been surgically or traumatically removed. (p. 154)
"A state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class�specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist. The physical adaptation of the body to the presence of an opioid or other addictive substance. (p. 153)"
A pattern of compulsive use of opioids or any other addictive substance characterized by a continuous craving for the substance and the need to use it for effects other than pain relief (also called addiction). (p. 156)
Pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin. (p. 154)
"Pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints. (p. 154)"
Special pain situations
"The general term for pain control situations that are complex and whose treatment typically involves multiple medications, various health care personnel, and nonpharmacologic therapeutic modalities (e.g., massage, chiropractic care, surgery). (p. 175)"
Pain that originates from the skin or mucous membranes; opposite of deep pain. (p. 154)
"Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. For example, 1 + 1 is greater than 2. (p. 157)"
"The general term for a state of adaptation in which repetitive exposure to a given drug, over time, induces changes in drug receptors that reduce one or more of the drug's effects (same as physical dependence). (p. 153)"
Pain that results from a pathology of the vascular or perivascular tissues. (p. 154)
Pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles. (p. 154)
World Health Organization
"An international body of health care professionals, including clinicians and epidemiologists among many others, that studies and responds to health needs and trends worldwide. (p. 158) (al 151-152)"