# Chapter 13 & 14

 1 eV = 1.602 x 10-19 J 1 Gy = 100 rad 1 rad = (rad is ABSORBED dose) 0.01 Gy(also stated as 1 Gy = 100 rad) 1 rem = (rem is dose EQUIVALENT) 0.01 Sv(also stated as 1 Sv = 100 rem) What are the 4 assumptions of the Bohr atom model? 1. electrons around the nucleus exist in certain energy states(orbits)2. electrons do NOT lose energy in their own orbits3.when electrons move to a lower energy orbit they emit radiation. Lost energy is seen as the atomic spectra.4. in any orbit the momentum of the electron can only have fixed values and are given an integer multiple of a fundamental constant (Planck's constant[h]) p.280, #4 What are the 4 forces responsible for the interaction between different particles? (In order greatest to least)strong forceelectromagnetic(EM)weak forcegravity What is absorbed dose? radiation x energy absorbed by a medium What does amu stand for? atomic mass unit(mass of an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12.00 amu) What is an Atom? smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element What is direct proportionality? as one ration increases the other ratio increases or vise versa What is an electrical charge? fundamental property(character) of subatomic particles, it determines the strength of their EM interaction.note: the MASS of a particle determines the strength of their gravitational interaction. What is electron volt(eV)? special "derived" unit for radiation energies What is the formula for the number of electrons allowed in any shell of an atom? 2n2, n = shell number(K=1,L=2,M=3 and so on)note: the energy of a shell increases with the increase of the value of n(the more e the more energy) What is gravity force? force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has an infinite range Gray can be expressed in units of? joule/kilogram(J/kg) What is Gray(Gy)? radiation ABSORBED dose(it replaced the outdated unit of rad) What is GROUND STATE of an atom? lowest possible energy state of an atom, n= 1 Hadrons are? protons and neutrons What is inverse proportionality? as one factor increases the other factor decreases and vice versa joule(J) = (J) is the accepted metric(SI) unit of energy 1 kgm2/s2(1 kilogram-meter2 per second2) keV = (kiloelectron volt) 103 eV What are leptons? electrons What is linear interpolation? process of calculating unkown values from known values A becquerel(Bq) = 1 dcps(disintegration per second) MeV = (megaelectron volt) 10 eV note: a neutron has no charge note: from gray box p.280 as the atomic number of an atom increases the number of electrons increases(keeps atom neutrally charged) What is the number of electrons allowed in any outer shell? 8 What is proportion? when two ratios are equal or an equation relating two ratios What is radiation? transmitted energy in the form of electromagnetic waves What is a ratio? comparison of two numbers, values or terms What is Roentgen(r) measurement used for? amount of radiation exposure in the AIR What are the 2 rules by which electrons fill an atom's shell? 1. no shell can contain more than its max number of electrons2. the outermost shell can only hold 8 electrons What does SAD stand for? source to axis distance What does SI stand for? international system of units What does SSD stand for? source to skin distance What is a strong force? short ranged force responsible for interaction between neutron and proton and other particles in the hadrons family What are subatomic particles? neutrons, protons and electrons What are the 4 fundamental units in the metric system? second(time)meter(distance)kilogram(mass)ampere(electrical current) What is weak force? short ranged force  responsible for interaction between elementary particles(neutrinos and antineutrinos)responsible for radioactive decay(beta decay) Who was Becquerel? He discovered redioactivity with Marie Curie. Who was Madam Marie Curie? She is known for discovering Radium and Polonium. She coined the word "radioactivity". Who was Roentgen? He discovered X rays. Electron's binding energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom valence electrons electrons in the outermost shell of the atom excited state (of an electron) state in which an atom picks up outside energy, causing an electron to move into a higher-energy orbital excitation when energy is imparted to an electron it becomes excited, the atom will then reach an unstable state ionization when an electron is removed from an atom characteristic x-rays excess energy(photons) released from an atom when an electron from a higher energy orbit fills the empty space of an ionized electron Auger electron outer electron that is knocked out of an atom strong nuclear force force that tightly binds protons and neutrons of a nucleus atomic number number of protons in a nucleus atom mass number number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus nucleon proton and neutron together nuclear force holds protons together in the nucleus by overcoming electrostatic force(protons in the nucleus are all positive and would naturally repel each other nuclear binding energy total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together ground state minimum amount of energy needed to keep nucleons together radioactivity emission of energy from nucleus In relationship to the atom, Z = atomic number, # of protons In relationship to the atom, A = atomic mass number, nucleon(protons & neutrons together) In relationship to the atom, N = neutron number Isotope Z, atomic number(protons) stay the same Isobar A, mass number(protons and neutrons) stay the same Isotone N, neutron number, stays the same Isomer everything stays the same(Z,A and N) photon packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light(in a vacuum) the speed of light = 3 x 10⁸ m/sec electromagnetic wave waves that consist of anelectrical field and magnetic field traveling through space at right angles to each other nu (ν) = frequency of a EM wave lambda(λ) = wavelength of a EM wave velocity(c) = speed of a EM wave(constant) which is the speed of light in a vacuum c=vλ note: a photon has no mas wave-particle duality when photons exhibit the characteristics of a particle at times and a wave at times rest mass mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving AuthorRadTherapy ID194517 Card SetChapter 13 & 14 DescriptionScott's Test Feb. 1st JQ Updated2013-01-30T00:22:31Z Show Answers