Biology Vocab 1

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  1. Science
    a body of knowledge about the natural world
  2. theory
    a general set of principles, supported by evidence,that explains some aspect of nature
  3. scientific method
    • a means of coming to understand the natural world through observation and the testing of hypotheses
    • observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
  4. hypothesis
    a tentative, testable explanation for an observed phenomenon
  5. variable
    an adjustable condition in an experiment
  6. biology
    the study of life
  7. characteristics of living things:
    • Can assimilate (take in) and use energy
    • Can respond to their environment
    • Can maintain a relatively constant internal environment
    • Possess an inherited information base, encoded in DNA, that allows them to function
    • Can reproduce through use of the information encoded in DNA
    • Are composed of one or more cells
    • Evolved from other living things
    • Are highly organized compared to inanimate objects
  8. life sciences
    a set of disciplines that focus of varying aspects of the living world
  9. evolution
    the gradual modification of populations of living things over time, with this modification sometimes resulting in the development of new species
  10. mass
    a measure of the quantity of matter in any given object
  11. protons
    positively charged subatomic particles, packed tightly with neutrons in the atom's nucleus
  12. neutron
    neutrally charged subatomic particles, protons and neutrons make up an atom's nucleus
  13. electron
    negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the atom's nucleus
  14. nucleus
    protons and neutrons tightly packed together forms the core of atoms
  15. element
    • a substance that is pure in that it cannot be reduced to any simpler set of component substances through chemical processes
    • the thing that defines each element is the number ofprotons it has in its nucleus
  16. atomic number
    the number of protons in an element's neucli
  17. isotopes
    the number of neutrons in an elements nucleus may vary, we can have various forms of elements
  18. chemical bonding
    • When the outermost electrons of two atoms come into contact, it becomes possible for these electrons to reshuffle themselves in a way that allows the atoms to become attached to one another
    • Two types:
    • ionic bonding
    • covalent bonding
  19. covalent bonding
    a chemical bond in which atoms share pairs of electrons
  20. ionic bonding
    Giving up electrons
  21. law of conservation of mass
    matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
  22. molecule
    an entity consisting of a defined number of atoms covalentlybonded together
  23. the oxygen atom has greater power to attract electrons to itself than do the hydrogen atoms. The term for measuring this kind of pull is:
  24. polarity
    difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other
  25. Because electrons are negatively charged and because they can be found closer to the oxygen nucleus, the oxygen end of the molecule becomes slightly negatively charged,while the hydrogen regions become slightly positively charged. We still have a covalent bond, but it is a specific type:
    polar covalent bond
  26. With the hydrogen molecule where electrons are shared equally we have a:
    nonpolar covalent bond
  27. ion
    a charged atom or, to put it anotherway, an atom whose number of electrons differs fromits number of protons
  28. ionic bonding
    a chemical bonding inwhich two or more ions are linked by virtue of their opposite charge
  29. molecular formula
    A chemical formula that shows the total number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not their structural arrangement. For example, the molecular formula of aspirin is C9H8O4
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Biology Vocab 1
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