Introduction to Animal Diseases

  1. What is disease?
    alteration of the state of the body or some of its parts which interrupts or disturbs the proper performance of bodily functions
  2. Define symptoms.
    any change in the body or its function as perceived by the patient - may only be observed by the patient
  3. What are the causes of non-infectious diseases?
    • mechanical injury
    • poisons
    • nutritional
    • hormonal
    • enzymatic
    • degenerative
    • genetic - congenital, developmental
  4. What is contamination?
    presence of microorganisms in the body
  5. What is infection?
    presence and replication of microorganisms in the body, which may cause tissue injury or disease
  6. Define clinical signs.
    objective evidence, manifestations of disease apparent to the observer
  7. What are the different types of infections?
    • contagious
    • non-contagious
    • zoonotic
    • parasitic
  8. Define contagious.
    transmitted from one animal to another
  9. Define non-contagious.
    not transmitted to other animals
  10. Define zoonotic.
    transmitted from animal to human or human to animal
  11. Define parasitic.
    internal or external
  12. What are the methods of spread of disease?
    • direct contact
    • fomites
    • carriers
    • soil
    • food and water
    • airborne
    • insects
    • resident flora
    • laboratory exposure
  13. What are the different classifications of disease according to time?
    • peracute
    • acute
    • subacute
    • chronic
    • subclinical
  14. Define peracute.
    • affects animal extremely rapidly
    • often dies before clinical signs are seen
  15. Define acute.
    • arises within a few hours and is resolved within days or a few weeks
    • either death or recovery
  16. Define subclinical.
    • development of clinical signs takes 1 - 3 weeks
    • either death or recovery
  17. Define chronic.
    • insidious onset - weeks, months, or years
    • often cannot pinpoint exactly when the animal became ill
  18. Define subclinical.
    • ADR
    • self - corrects in a few days 
    • may never determine the causes
    • may become a latent infection - carrier state
  19. What are the properties of infectious agents?
    • virulence
    • bacterial enzymes
    • toxin production
  20. What is virulence?
    • the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease
    • ability to grow and thrive in the environment provided by the host
    • can invade and cause lesions
    • destroys cells by - presence, secretion, and/or host response
  21. What does virulence result in?
    • local infections
    • systemic infections
  22. What are the different systemic infections?
    • septicemia
    • viremia
    • bacteremia
  23. Yew poisoning is an example of what type of disease?
  24. Milk fever is an example of what type of disease?
  25. Panleukopenia is an example of what type of disease?
  26. Parvovirus is an example of what type of disease?
  27. Intestinal obstruction is an example of what type of disease?
  28. Hip dysplasia is an example of what type of disease?
  29. Bacterial enzymes is an important factors in _____.
  30. What are the different types of bacterial enzymes?
    • hyaluronidase
    • staphylokinase
    • streptolysin
    • penicillinase
  31. What does hyaluronidase do?
    • breaks down hyaluronic acid - tissue "glue"
    • makes it more "liquid-y" between cells, easier for microorganisms to spread
  32. What does staphylokinase do?
    • produced by certain staphlyococci
    • lyses fibrin
  33. What does streptolysin do?
    a hemolysin (breaks down red blood cells) produced by certain streptococci
  34. What are toxins?
    chemical substances destructive to the body, "poisons"
  35. What are the two types of toxins?
    • endotoxins
    • exotoxins
  36. What are endotoxins?
    toxins produced by bacterial cells that are released when the bacteria dies
  37. What is the most common endotoxin?
    Escherichia coli
  38. Endotoxins are a component of gram _____ bacterial cell wall
  39. What are the clinical signs of endotoxemia?
    • fever
    • inflammation
    • hemorrhage
    • shock
    • DIC
  40. What are the characteristics of endotoxins?
    • poor antigens
    • act locally
  41. What are true toxins?
  42. What are exotoxins produced and released by?
    • plants
    • animals
    • bacteria
  43. What are characteristics of exotoxins?
    • highly poisonous
    • excellent antigens
  44. What are the different host defenses against disease?
    • anatomical barriers
    • reflex barriers
    • phagocytosis by neutorphils and macrophages
    • biochemical
    • antitoxin production
    • interferon
    • fever, inflammation
    • immune system
  45. What is the primary defense against disease?
    anatomical barriers
  46. What are the different anatomical barriers?
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • low pH of stomach acid
    • sebaceous glands
    • perspiration, tears, saliva
  47. What are the different mucous membranes?
    • respiratory tract
    • gastrointestinal tract
    • genitourinary tracts
  48. What type of properties do sebaceous glands have?
    antifungal and antibacterial properties
  49. How does perspiration, tears, and saliva protect against diseases?
    have lysozymes that attack the cell walls of certain bacteria - mild antiseptic effect
  50. What are the different reflex barriers?
    • coughing
    • sneezing
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
  51. What are the different biochemical defenses against disease?
    enzyme systems such as lysozymes in WBCs
  52. What is antitoxin production?
    an antibody formed to fight a specific toxin
  53. What is interferon?
    a type of protein produced by cells exposed to a virus, bacteria, antigens, etc - having the ability to inhibit viral replications and having other immune functions
  54. What is a fever?
    a rise in body temperature above normal in response to disease
  55. What typically causes a fever?
    infectious disease
  56. What does a high temperature associated with a fever do?
    may inhibit growth of virus or bacteria
  57. Other than infectious disease, what can cause a fever?
    • neoplasia
    • drugs
  58. What is pyrogen?
    a fever-causing substance - from the infectious agent or from host body cells
  59. What is considered a dangerous fever in small animals?
    106 degrees
  60. What are the five cardinal signs of inflammation?
    • heat - "color"
    • redness - "rubor"
    • swelling - "tumor"
    • pain - "dolor"
    • loss of function
  61. What does inflammation cause?
    • vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
    • swelling of tissues due to fluid leakage from blood
    • increased local temperature due to vasodilation
    • pain from swelling - migration of WBCs through vessel walls
Card Set
Introduction to Animal Diseases
Animal Diseases