Histology and Physiology of Bones

  1. What are the 3 types of cartilage?
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Fibrocartilage
    • 3. Elastic cartilage
  2. Chondroblast
    are cells that produce cartilage matrix
  3. chondrocyte
    mature cartilage cell
  4. lacuna
    small space or cavity; potential space within the matrix of bone or cartilage normally occupied by a cell
  5. perichondrium
    is a double-layered connective tissue sheath covering most cartilage; outer layer is dense irregular connective tissue and contains fibroblast; inner layer has fewer fibers and contains chondroblast
  6. Articular cartilage
    is the cartilage covering the ends of bone where they come together to form joints, has no perichondrium, blood vessels or nerves
  7. Appositional growth
    is the addition of new cartilage matrix on the surface of new cartilage or to place one layer of bone, cartilage, or other connective tissue against an existing layer
  8. interstitial growth
    is the addition of new cartilage matrix within cartilage or growth from within
  9. osteoblasts
    produce new bone matrix and become osteocytes; bone-forming cells
  10. ossification
    is the formation of bone by osteoblast
  11. osteocytes
    are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix, are located in lacunae and are connected to one another through canaliculi
  12. osteoclasts
    are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for the resorption, or breakdown, of bone
  13. osteochondral progenitor cells
    are stem cells that can become osteblasts or chondroblasts, are located in the inner layer of perichondrium, periosteum, and the endosteum
  14. stem cells
    mesenchymal cells which can replicate and give rise to more specialized cells type
  15. woven bone
    the collagen fibers are randomly oriented in many directions; first formed during fetal development or during the repair of a fracture and is remodeled to form lamellar bone
  16. remodeling
    process where osteoclasts remove old bone and osteoblasts deposit new bone; it converts woven bone to lamellar and allows bone to change shape, adjust to stress, repair it self, and regulate body calcium levels
  17. Lamellar bone
    is mature bone that is organized into thin sheets or layers of lamellae, which have collagen fibers oriented parallel to one another
  18. Cancellous bone

    Spongy bone
    consists of thin rods or plates of interconnecting bone called trabeculae
  19. trabeculae
    beams of bone that interconnect to form a latticelike structure with spaces filled with bone marrow and blood vessels; oriented along lines of stress and provide structural strength
  20. compact bone
    is dense with few spaces
  21. central canal

    haversian canal
    vessels that run parallel to the long axis of the bone
  22. concentric lamellae
    are circular layers of bone matrix that surround th central canal
  23. osteon

    haversian system
    consists of a single central canal, its contents, and associated concentric lamella and osteocytes
  24. circumferential lamellae
    are thin plates that extend around the bone
  25. interstitial lamella
    are remants of concentric or circumfenential lamella that were partially removed bone remodeling
  26. perforating canal

    Volkmann canal
    runs perpendicular to lng axis of the bone
  27. long bones
    are longer than they are wide
  28. short bones
    are about as wide as they are long
  29. flat bones
    have a relatively thin, flattened shape and are usually curved
  30. irregular bones
    have shapes that do not fit readily into the other 3 categories
  31. diaphysis
    shaft of long bones
  32. epiphyseal plate

    growth plate
    is composed of cartilage, is the site of bone growth in length
  33. epiphysis
    the end of bone
  34. epiphyseal line
    the site where the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone when bone growth stops
  35. medullary cavity
    the diaphysis of a long bone have a large internal space
  36. red bone marrow
    the site of blood cell formation
  37. yellow bone marrow
    is mostly adipose tissue
  38. peristeum
    is a connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of a bone
  39. endosteum
    is a single layer of cells lining the internal surface of all cavities within bones
  40. intramembranous ossification
    is the formation of bone within a connective tissue membrane
  41. centers of ossification
    are locations in the membrane where ossification begins
  42. frontanels
    larger membrane-covered spaces between the developing skull bones that have yet been ossified; soft spots
  43. endochondral ossification
    is the formation of bone within cartilage
Card Set
Histology and Physiology of Bones
Bone Vocab