Short Form Verbs

  1. Expresses a visual or expected action that occasionally does not occur / There are times when….does not happen.
    Short Form (Negative) + ことがある

    • けんじさんはよしゅうしをないことがある。
    • There are times when Kenji does not prepare for class.
  2. Activites as examples / Leaves room for things unsaid. If more than one り, add するafter the last one.
    Short Form (Past) + り。。。りする

    • きのうのばん、私はテレビを見たり、音楽を聞いたり、しゅくだいをしたりしていました。
    • Last night, I watched TV, listened to music, and did homework.

    • 私はテレビを見たりしていた。
    • I watched TV and stuff.
  3. Indicates the purpose of or the motive for an action / I did “this,” so “that” would happen.
    Short Form + ように + (Sentence B)

    • 大きくなるようによく食べて下さい。
    • Please eat well as to grow up big.
  4. Indicates the purpose of or the motive for an action / I did “this,” so “that” would not happen.
    Short Form (Negative) + ように + (Sentence B)

    • 忘れないようにメモをとった。
    • I made a note so that I would not forget.
  5. Expresses achievement of an ability or potential / Reached a point / can now do… / someone is now able to do something after a long period of time / expresses a change in a situation, state, or event.
    Short Form + ようになる

    • 子供は自分で部屋をかたずけるようになりました。
    • My child has reached the point where she cleans her room herself.
  6. Someone no longer does something after a long period of time / Expresses a change in a situation, state, or event (i.e. no longer does).
    Short Form (Negative) + ようになる

    • はやしさんはたばこをすわないようになりました。
    • Mr. Hayashi has reached a point where he no longer smokes.
  7. Gives advice or recommendation / critical overtone/ implies the activity should have already been completed / how about…? / Sometime どうis dropped.
    Short Form (Past) + らどうですか

    • 先生に聞いたらどうですか
    • How about asking your teacher?
  8. Something seems to be the case based on information / Follows verb or adjective in any form / sometimes replaces みたい.
    Short Form + よう

    • このきかいはこわれたようです。
    • It seems that this machine is broken.
  9. Something seems to be the case / Is an い-adjective.
    Short Form + らしい

    • ともこさんは新しい車を買ったらしい。
    • I hear that Tomoko bought a new car.
  10. Connects two facts / “A,” contrary to expectations, “B” also / “B,” despite the fact “A” (but) / expresses “to” and “in order to” / indicates purpose for which an action is taken or a condition exists / noun and な-adjectives = なのに
    Short Form + のに + (Sentence B)

    • この会社はお金があるのに、きゅうりょうはひくいです。
    • The company is rich, but its workers’ salaries are low.
  11. Expresses a suggestion that involves an action by both the speaker and the listener.
    • Short Form (Negative) + でおこう
    • Short Form (Negative) + でおきましょう

    • 今こんでいるから地下鉄にのらないでおこう。
    • Let’s not take the subway because it is crowded.
  12. ”B” is valid only upon the fulfillment of “A” / “If” sentences (hypothetical & actual) / when “A” happens, “B” will happen (cause & effect) / similar to なら& ば
    Short Form (Past) + ら + (Sentence B)

    • 電話したら、彼は来るでしょう。
    • If you call him, he will probably come.
  13. Expresses exclamation of admiration, frustration, or strong emotions / used when talking to oneself / a short negative command not to do something and often used as a last resort.
    Short Form + な

    • ここに来るな
    • Don’t come here!
  14. “If” sentences and expresses a condition / verbs and い–adjectives are sometimes ~のなら / な-adjectives don’t need の before なら
    Short Form + なら + (Sentence B)

    • 急ぐなら、次の電車に乗ることができるよ。
    • If we hurry we’ll be able to make the next train.
  15. Gives reasons for the situation / is similar to からbut more formal / when のでfollows a noun or な–adjective, なis in between.
    Short Form + ので

    • いつも日本語で話すので、日本語が上手になりました。
    • My Japanese has improved because I always speak Japanese.

    • 今日は日曜日なので、銀行は休みです。
    • Banks are closed because today is Sunday.
  16. Whenever the situation described by the predicate holds, another thing happens / cause & effect / Whenever “A” happens, “B” also happens.
    Short Form + と+ (Sentence B)

    • 私はそばを食べると病気になる。
    • I get sick whenever I eat buckwheat noodles.

    • まっすぐ行くとりつりんこうえんが見えます。
    • If you go straight you’ll see Ritsurin Park
  17. Suggests activity / Gives advice / if you don’t do…you will be in trouble / you better… /you ought to… / it would be best if you…
    Short Form (Past) + ほうがいいです

    • もっと野菜を食べたほうがいいですよ。
    • You better eat more vegetables.
  18. If you do …you will be in trouble / You shouldn’t do…
    Short Form (Negative) + ほうがいいです

    • じゅぎょうを休まないほうがいいですよ。
    • It is better not to skip classes.
  19. Apologetic tone / invites an explanation or clarification
    Short Form + んです

    • トイレに行きたいんです。
    • I want to go to the bathroom (so tell me where it is).
  20. Makes a prediction or analysis
    • Short Form Adjective +でしょうと思います
    • Short Form Adjective +だろうと思います

    • たけしさんはきょうみがあるだろうと思います。
    • I think Takeshi would be interested in it.
  21. Please tell someone not to do something / Makes an indirect request / person being asked the favor + に
    Short Form (Negative) + ように言って下さい

    • 子供たちにおそくまで起きていないように言って下さい。
    • Please tell the children not to stay up late.
  22. Please tell someone to do something / Makes an indirect request / person being asked the favor + に
    Short Form + ように言って下さい

    • たけしさんに来るように言って下さい。
    • Please tell Ms. Takeshi to come.
  23. Something is supposed to be the case / believe something to be true or likely / firm expectations that something will be the case / I’m sure…
    Short Form + はずです

    • これからぶっかがあがるはずです。
    • I’m sure prices will go up from now on.
  24. Speaks about past actions / makes additional statements about the subject of the sentence / not only…but also…
    Short Form (Past) + ばかりでなく...も

    • 今日は買い物をしたばかりでなく映画も見ました。
    • Today, not only did I do some shopping, but I also watched a movie.
  25. Something was supposed to be the case but turned out otherwise.
    Short Form + はずでした

    • ぜんしゅう電話をもらうはずでしたが、電話がありませんでした。
    • I was supposed to receive a call last week, but I didn’t.
  26. I Hear… / I Heard… / Informal speech, used instead of そうです/ short form of そうです/ after short form + ん(だ),~って becomes て.
    Short Form + って

    • けんじさん、今日急がしって。あしたしけんがあるんだって。
    • Kenji said he is busy today. He says he has an exam tomorrow.
  27. You hope something nice happens to someone else.
    Short Form + といいですね

    • 雨がふらないといいですね。
    • I hope it doesn’t rain.
  28. When “A” happens, “B” will happen / Short form can be past or present / nouns get のbefore 時= 子供の時(when I was a child) / present tense when events happen at the same time / sentence A (time reference) + 時+ sentence B (main event).
    Short Form + 時+ (Sentence B)

    • 東京に行く時、ビザをとります。
    • I will get the visa issued when I get to Tokyo.

    • さびしい時,友だちに電話します。
    • I call up friends when I am lonely.
  29. You hope something nice happens for your own good.
    Short Form + といいんですが

    • 八時の電車に乗れるといいんですが。
    • I hope I can ride the 8 o’clock train.
Card Set
Short Form Verbs
Japanese Short Form Verb Formulas