Part 4

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    This is another excellent example of configurational work, linking dimensions of strategy, structure, and managerial style. Allison claimed that people think about problems of foreign and military policy in term of largely implicit conceptual models that have significant consequences for the content of their thought.
  2. Probes into Periods of Transition (configuration school)
    • Probes into Periods of Transition
    • Pettigrew performed a studiy of transformation at ICI, the chemical company in the UK. Pettigrew viewed this change, not as an episode, but as a series of episodes. (dit zijn allemaal hele uitgebreide specifieke voorbeelden, vond ik niet zo nuttig).David Hurst (1995) described organizational change through an ecocycle model of crisis and renewal. (Seen figure 11.2 blz. 323, kopie)This model consists of two loops that intersect to form the symbol if infinity. The front half, or performance loop of the model, shown as a solid line is the conventional life cycle. This, according to Hurst, is where strategic management is found. The back half, or learnings loop, shown dotted, represents a less familiar, renewal cycle of death and reconception. This is the realm of charismatic leadership.
  3. TRANSFORMING ORGANIZATIONS (configuration school)
    • All of the following is about managed change. Some authors say that managed change is an oxymoron. They argue that change should not be managed, at least when this word is used ot mean forced, made to happen. Managers often claim that people int their organizations resist changing. True enough. But maybe that is because these people have for so long been overmanaged. The cure might actually prove to be just more of the cause. If so, then perhaps the best way to manage change is to allow for it to happen – to set up the conditions whereby people will follow their natural instincts to experiment and transform their behaviours.
  4. Changing What? (configuration school)
    Changing What?

    What can be changed in an organization. One way to think of this is as a change cube (blz. 326, kopie). It indicates what comprehensive change in an organization really means: it is about strategy and structure, ranging from the conceptual to the concrete and from highly formal behaviours to rather informal ones. Wherever you intervene on this cube, you have to change everything below. The point of this description is that serious change in organizations includes the entire cube: strategy and organization, from the most conceptual to the most concrete, informally as well as formally.
  5. Mapping Processes of Change (configuration school)
    • Mapping Processes of Change
    • Now we can consider the methods of change. Needed here is some kind of map. Figure 11-3 presents such a map in which the methods of change are plotted on two dimensions (blz. 328 kopie). Along the top is a scale of the breadth of change, which runs from micro to macro.Micro change is focused within the organization, for example, job redesign in a factory.Macro change is aimed at the entire organization, for example, repositioning its place in the market.In this book we are obviously concerned with the more macro side of this scale. Micro is included because give guide to the different means of change and because micro changes can have macro consequences.
  6. On the horizontal scale the authors suggest that there are three basic approaches to the process of change: (configuration)
    On the horizontal scale the authors suggest that there are three basic approaches to the process of change: (configuration)

    • 1. Planned change is programmatic: there exists a system or set of procedures to be followed.
    • 2. Driven change is guided: a single individual or small group, usually in an influential position of authority, oversees the change and ensures that it happens.
    • 3. Evolved change is organic: it kind of happens, or at least is guided by people outside positions of significant authority, often in obscure places in the organization. This third approach to chang is neither managed nor even under the firm control of managers.
  7. Programs of Comprehensive Change (configuration)
    Programs of Comprehensive Change

    A manager can simply pick something and try to change it. Most change is of this piecemeal type; it goes on all the time here and there.The change cube suggests, however, that this probably works better at the more concrete (and micro) level than the conceptual (and macro) level.There has arisen a great deal of literature and consulting practice on massive programs of comprehensive change, namely transformation. These propose how to combine the various methods of change into logical sequences to turn around or renew an organization. But this is a confusing body of work: just about every writer and consulting firm has his, her, or its own formula for success.
  8. Despite all the current hype about change, not all organizations need to change everything all the time. The word for that is anarchy. The trick is to balance change with continuity: to achieve change when and where necessary while maintaining order.In 1995 three McKinsey consultants outlined six basic strategies:
    Despite all the current hype about change, not all organizations need to change everything all the time. The word for that is anarchy. The trick is to balance change with continuity: to achieve change when and where necessary while maintaining order.In 1995 three McKinsey consultants outlined six basic strategies:

    • 1. Evolutionary/institution building: a gradual reshaping of the company’s values, top-level structures and performance measures so that line managers could drive the change.
    • 2. Jolt and refocus: shake up a gridlocked power structure, delayered top management, defined new business units, and redesigned management processes.
    • 3. Follow the leader: for immediate results, leaders initiated major changes from the top.
    • 4. Multifront focus: change is driven by task teams whose targets are more wide ranging.
    • 5. Systematic redesign: task teams drivethe process to boost performance, but core process redesign and other organizational changes tend to be planned in parallel.
    • 6. Unit-level mobilizing: change leaders empower task teams to tap into the pent-up ideas of middle managers and front-line employees.

    So should the change process be top-down or bottom-up? If you are to believe the experts, then you will have to flip a coin. Or else try to understand what is broken in your own organization before you decide how to fix it. The approach you use depends on your organization’s goals, needs, and capabilities.
  11. Changing the Organization Religiously (configuration school)
    The popular literature on transformation is really about planned and driven change.Westly and Mintzber developed three models by which the world’s greatest religions have changed over the centuries.
    • Changing the Organization Religiously
    • The popular literature on transformation is really about planned and driven change.Westly and Mintzber developed three models by which the world’s greatest religions have changed over the centuries.

    • In one way or another, all three models are significantly organic, although one is initially leader-driven, but not as most people might imagine. Central leadership appears late in another, and not at all in the remaining one. There is hardly any planning in any of them.
    • 1. Enclaving: this is about the Catholic Church. The change is an enclave (closed society) of the organization. Rather than destroying the effort, the organization tolerates it, isolating it to avoid challenge to, or contamination of, the rest of its activity. At some point, however, whether because the movement has moderated its radicalism or the larger organization finds itself in crisis and so has need of the change, the change is accepted, legitimized, and then allowed to infuse the rest of the organization and so effect a broader shift.
    • 2. Cloning: this is about the Protestant Church, which is characterized by religious pluralism. The pattern of proliferation is an interesting one, with lessons for many contemporary organizations. We call it cloning, as it involves the splitting off of groups into separate organizations.
    • 3. Uprooting: this model loos at the way in which visionary change can be managed so as to maintain, over time, the charismatic intensity of the early stages of the organization, avoiding the routinization of the later stages.

    • McGillomaniaDonaldson argues that:
    • - Configurations represent a flawed (faulty) approach to theorizing, precisely because they are so easy to understand and teach.- Organizations come in many shades of gray and not just black and white.
    • - It is empirically and conceptually erroneous (wrong) to maintain that firms are either static or changing rapidly. Moest organizations, moest of the time, are changing incrementally.To say that organizations at intermediate points between different configurations are in disequilibrium
    • –whose strategies are nonviable until they reach a configuration which is more stable – begs the question of how they manage to make this transition at all.49Donaldson’s criticism is based on the one criterion of accuracy, as if theories are true or not. But all theories are false: they are just words of pictures on pieces of paper. Reality is always more complex. So usefulness becomes a key criterion especially for practicing managers. This does not negate Donaldson’s criticisms, but it does reaise at least equally important questions about his preferred alternative (ongeveer als de benadering in chapter 10).
  13. Lumping (configuration)
    • Lumping (configuration)
    • Because pattern is the eye of the beholder, all lumping must be considered somewhat arbitrary.Like it or not, we need categories to help us understand our complex world. And so, we need lumping, even though we must be aware of its limitations.We conclude that categories, including configurations, are figments of our imagination (or lack of it) at least as much as they are identifiable things.
  14. The Edges (configuration)
    • The Edges (configuration)
    • The configurational approach should not, therefore, allow us to ignore the nuances of our messy world. Overall, the contribution of the configuration school has been evident in strategic management. It brings order to the messy world of strategy formation, particularly to its huge, diverse literature and practice.
  15. Of tails and tusks, plans and patternsYou have to understand the parts to appreciate the whole.
    • Of tails and tusks, plans and patternsYou have to understand the parts to appreciate the whole.
    • A METAPHORICAL BEAST FOR EACH SCHOOL: Tabel 12-1 p.354-359 (kopie)THE EVOLUTION OF THE SCHOOLS: Early schools that were easy to identify have given rise to later ones that are more complex, and more nuanced, one with the other. Figure 12-1 p. 353DIMENSIONS OF THE SCHOOLS: Tabel 12-1 p.354-359
  16. Taming the wilds of strategic management
    • Taming the wilds of strategic management
    • De bedoeling van deze vraagstukken is wat dichter naar het hele beest toe te schuiven, al zullen we er nooit helemaal komen. Hierna worden acht vraagstukken beschreven die dwars door de scholen heen spelen en door de scholen zelf worden opgeworpen maar niet worden beantwoord. De eerste drie vraagstukken gaan over de inhoud van strategie, de overige vijf over het strategieproces. Elk van de vraagstukken start met een vraag en eindigt met een vraag.1. Complexiteit;
  17. 1. Complexiteit;Hoe ingewikkeld moet een goede strategie zijn?
    • 1. Complexiteit;Hoe ingewikkeld moet een goede strategie zijn?
    • Aan de ene kant moet een strategie voldoende variatie hebben om in te kunnen spelen op uitdagingen die zich zullen voordoen (Ashby). Anderzijds geldt: de eenvoud wint. Hoe uitgebreid, genuanceerd, begrijpelijk en algemeen moeten strategieën zijn, waar en wanneer?Design school: strategies as simple informing ideas.Learning school: getting off on simplistic notions of strategy.
  18. 2. Integratie;Hoe strak geïntegreerd moet een goede strategie zijn? De verschillende scholen hebben verschillende visies hierop, van losse onderdelen tot volledig geïntegreerd. Hoeveel integratie is wenselijk, van welke soort en wanneer?
    Positioning school: strategy is a portfolio, a loosely coupled collection of components.Planning school: similar viewEntrepreneurial and cultural school: see no components at all, only full integrated
  19. 3. Generiek;Hoe uniek of nieuw moet een goede strategie zijn? Sommige scholen zien strategie als uniek, sommige scholen als generiek (bestaand en duidelijk gedefinieerd). Hoe verhouden nieuwe en generieke strategieën zich tot elkaar?
    Hierbij komen de drie vraagstukken over de inhoud van strategie bij elkaar; een generieke strategie zou eenvoudiger zijn, minder geïntegreerd maar misschien wel flexibeler. Een nieuwe strategie zal complexer zijn, waarschijnlijk meer geïntegreerd en daarom ook minder flexibel.51Positioning school: strategies are generic.Entrepreneurial and cultural school: strategies are unique.Learning school: strategies are de products of idiosyncratic adaptive processes.Design school: strategies are unique because they are created in a personalized process of design.
  20. 4. Controle;Hoezeer van tevoren bepaald, verstandelijk en gecentraliseerd moet een goede strategie zijn? Verschillende visies t.a.v. weloverwogen strategie en strategie als een zich geleidelijk ontwikkelend proces. De vraag is dus: hoeveel van beide is nodig, waar en wanneer?
    Prescriptive schools and entrepreneurial school: promote deliberatenessOne side of cognitive school: raises doubts about the power of the strategist’s mind over strategic matter.Learning school: dismisses the deliberate in favor of the emergent.
  21. 5. Collectief;Wie is de strateeg? Soms is dat 1 persoon, soms een organisatie en soms de omgeving. Is het een persoonlijk, technisch, fysiologisch, collectief of een niet-proces? Hoeveel moet men van elk hebben, waar en wanneer?
    Design and entrepreneurial school: him or her.Learning, political and cultural school: them.Environmental, planning, positioning and cognitive school: it (the world out there).
  22. 6. Verandering;Drie verschillende vragen m.b.t. strategische verandering spelen een rol: het bestaan, het patroon en de bron.
    • Bestaan: Een organisatie kan stabiel zijn en tegelijkertijd veranderen (planningsschool). Andere scholen kiezen duidelijk voor een van beiden, een organisatie verandert voortdurend of bijna nooit. In de praktijk zal er sprake zijn van een vorm tussen deze uitersten.Patroon: een strategie kan incidenteel maar revolutionair veranderen of een stapsgewijze verandering ondergaan.Bron: verschillende bronnen, zoals leren, een programma of argumentatie. De vraag blijft, welke patronen van verandering zijn nodig en hoeveel leert een organisatie?Learning: leren door te doen (leren gaat makkelijk)
    • Design: door denken
    • Planning: door programmeren
    • Power: arguing
    • Cognitive and cultural: leren gaat moeilijk
    • Environmental: organisaties leren niet
  23. 7. Keuze;Hoe groot is de strategische keuze? Er kan sprake zijn van een deterministische (voortkomend uit een planning) of van een vrijblijvende keuze. What, when, and where is the power of proactive leadership, personalized intuition, and collective learning against the forces of environmental demand, organizational inertia, and cognitive limitation?
    Power school and learning school: achieve a good balance.
  24. 8. Denken.Hoeveel strategisch denken willen we eigenlijk hebben? Zeker moeten we denken en soms ook formaliseren, we kunnen ons echter van zoveel dingen bewust zijn dat het ten koste gaat van ons vermogen te handelen. Wat is strategisch denken eigenlijk en welke vormen zijn het meest doeltreffend?
    Learning school: organizations should get on with acting.
  25. Toward seeing the whole beastThere has been at least one consistent ambiguity throughout this book: whether these schools describe different processes of different parts of the same process. Should strategists pick and choose form among all these ideas of should they try to combine them into palatable dishes? Yes, both times.
    Every strategy process has to combine various aspects of the different schools. Practice tilts too. There are, after all, identifiable stages and periods in strategy making, not in any absolute sense but as clear tendencies.The very format of this book has favored the latter interpretation – of different processes. Ours has been a book mostly about lumping, not splitting.
  26. Mapping the lumps
    • Mapping the lumps
    • De figuren zijn bedoeld om het hele beest beter in het vizier te krijgen. Figuur 12.2 (p369) geeft de verschillende perspectieven van het strategievormingsproces weer op twee dimensies – hoe controleerbaar is de omgeving en hoe open-ended is het voorgestelde interne proces. Figuur 12.3 toont strategievorming als één integraal proces.
  27. Splitting the process
    • Splitting the process
    • In het midden van figuur 12.3 (p.371) staat de eigenlijk strategie die wordt gemaakt. Alleen de cognitiveschool probeert in die doos te komen. De andere scholen nemen een plaats in rond de doos. De positioningschool kijkt naar achter, naar de historie, de planningsschool kijkt weinig vooruit, de design- en entrepreneurial school kijken verder vooruit. De learningschool en politic school kijken naar beneden, naar de details. De cultural school kijkt van bovenaf en de configurationschool kijkt rondom.We can conclude that our ten schools look at the same process every which way. Together, we hope, they can help managers see through all this.
  28. Beyond the parts
    • Beyond the parts
    • Without parts, all elephants would be dead elephants, and all strategies dead strategies.Moeten de scholen nu afzonderlijk worden beschouwd? No, strategy formation is judgmental designing, intuitive visioning, and emergent learning; it is about transformation as well as perpetuation; it must involve individual cognition and social interaction, cooperation as well as conflict; it has to include analyzing before and programming after as well as negotiating during; and all of this must be in response to what can be a demanding environment.
  29. The hunt for strategic management
    • The hunt for strategic management
    • Strategievorming bevat dus onderdelen van alle scholen. We moeten niet alleen naar de delen(afzonderlijke scholen) kijken, maar vooral proberen meer aandacht te besteden aan het helebeest strategievorming. We zullen nooit het hele beest vinden, het nooit helemaal zien. Maar wekunnen het zeker beter zien.

    figuur 12.2 12.3
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Part 4
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