Carbohydrate Terms

  1. A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone or a compound that yeilds either of these upon hydrolysis
  2. A single saccharide molecule that cannot by hydrolyzed to a more simple compound.
    Contains 3-9 carbon atoms
  3. two saccharide molecules joined by a glycosidic bond
  4. carbohydrates that contain 6-10 monosaccharide units
  5. carbohydrates that contain more than 10 monosaccharide units
  6. A compound has ___ when it has the ability to rotate the plan of polarized light
    optical activity
  7. An object is ___ when it is NOT superimposable on its mirror image
  8. A carbon with 4 different consituents on it
    chiral carbon (or stereogenic center)
  9. compounds with the same molecular formula, but the atoms have a different spatial arrangement and may have different properties
  10. molecules with the same molecular formula which differ only in the orientation of groups around one carbon atom (for example D-glucose and D-galactose)
  11. A pair of molecules are called ____ when they are non-superposable mirror images
  12. Stereoisomers of a cyclic monosaccharide that differ only at the anomeric carbon.  Can be alpha or beta configuration
  13. D-
    In a Fischer projection, which side of the penultimate carbon is the OH group?
  14. L-
    In a Fischer projection, which side of the penultimate carbon is the OH group?
    Left (L for left)
  15. dextrorotatory means ______ rotation
    clockwise (positive)
  16. levorotatory means ____ rotation
    counter clockwise (-)
  17. Three categories of carbohydrates
    • starch
    • sugar
    • fiber
  18. Three functions of carbohydrates
    • Energy (short term)
    • Supply of carbon building blocks
    • Provides structure to cells and tissue
  19. Is it possible for a carbohydrate to contain nitrogen?
    Yes, some do
  20. simple sugars are an example of __glycerides
  21. sucrose, lactose, and maltose are examples of __glycerides
  22. glycogen, starches, and cellulose are examples of __glycerides
  23. How many carbons does aldohexose have?
  24. When you treat an aldehyde with one alcohol molecule this yields...
    a hemiacetal
  25. When you treat a ketone with one alcohol molecule this yields...
    a hemiketal
  26. When an anomeric carbon forms a bond with an OH group from another molecule, this bond is called a _____________ bond, and the resulting molecule is called a __________
    • glycosidic bond
    • glycoside
  27. How can you tell if a carbohydrate is a reducing sugar?
    It will have an alcohol on the anomeric carbon
  28. A 5-membered sugar ring
  29. A 6-membered sugar ring
  30. what is the most common form of polysaccharide found in nature?
  31. Homopolysaccharides
    identical repeating units
  32. heteropolysaccharides
    repeating units that aren't all the same
  33. Do polysaccharides have a defined molecular weight?
    No. Why? Because they are not synthesize on a template, so the exact number of repeating units can vary (unlike proteins)
  34. Name two major components of starch.  Which is more branched?
    • Amylose (linear)
    • Amylopectin (branched)
Card Set
Carbohydrate Terms
Organic chemistry terminology related to carbohydrates