1. 1. Which facility type is better at minimize disease transmission, a conventional or clean/dirty type?
    1. A clean dirty facility will be better at minimizing disease transmission
  2. 2. What is the difference between a barrier facility and a containment facility? How about a conventional and a clean/dirty?
    2. A barrier facility is designed to keep pathogens out of the facility, a containment facility is designed to keep pathogens from getting out of a facility; conventional facilities use a single hallway for both clean and dirty supplies while a clean/dirty facility has a clean hallway for clean supplies and a dirty hallway for supplies that have already been used in animal rooms
  3. 3. List five ways in which the cross-contamination of animals within a facility can be minimized.
    3. Following a room order (from cleanest to least clean), having rooms with pathogens be under negative pressure, having room specific cleaning implements, wearing appropriate protective equipment (PPE) and quarantining newly received animals
  4. 4. List the different types of cage materials we discussed and state one good thing and one bad thing about each.
    • 4. stainless steel - expensive but durable.
    • plastic - breakable but inexpensive.
    • galvanized metal - easily corroded but inexpensive.
    • aluminium - light-weight but corroded by some disinfectants.
    • glass - transparent but scratchable and breakable.
  5. 5. What is the most common type of plastic used to make rodent cages and what qualities of that plastic cause that to be the case?
    5. Polycarbonate is the most common type of plastic used to make rodent cages. It is autoclavable and transparent
  6. 6. What are the two types of metals often used to make animal enclosures?
    6. Stainless steel and galvanized
  7. 7. What are three characteristics all animal rooms should have?
    7. They should be strong, waterproof and sanitizable
  8. 8. What are examples of the types of areas (such as cage wash area, feed storage area, etc.) that should be found in an animal facility?
    8. Cage wash area, feed storage area, procedure area, personnel area, equipment storage, dead animal storage, animal housing areas, etc.
  9. 9. We talked about the space requirements for animals. Each mouse for example needs to be provided a certain amount of space depending on some characteristic of that mouse. What is that characteristic?
    9. Weight (how much each animals weighs)
  10. 10. What animals are housed in shoe box cages?
    10. Primarily rodents
  11. 11. What does a metabolism cage do?
    11. Metabolism cages separate and collect urine and feces. It also prevents spilled food and water from making its way into the collected urine and feces
  12. 12. What is unique about a recovery cage?
    12. Recovery cages usually have heated floors and sometimes walls in order to provide a warm environment for an animal recovery from a surgical procedure
  13. 13. Why does the ILAR Guide recommend that rodents not be housed in wire-bottom cages?
    13. Wire-bottom cages are often harmful to the feet of rodents because all of the animal's weight is being supported by just the part of their feet that are touching the bars of the floor. Also, the substrate (a wire mesh floor) does not allow the animals to burrow etc. (remember that a cage should promote normal physiologic, social and behavioral needs)
  14. 14. What are some good things and bad things about microisolators? How do microisolators effect the pressure inside them compared with the pressure outside them.
    14. Microisolators are cages that have filters on them and thus limit movement of pathogens into or out of a cage; because air flow into the cage is often reduced, the humidity, temperature and ammonia concentration in the cages goes up. The pressure inside a microisolator is the same as outside.
  15. 15. We talked about seven characteristics of bedding. What are four of those characteristics?
    15. Non-nutritive, non-toxic, absorbent, uniform size, disposable, available, comfortable.
  16. 16. What are the pros and cons of using water bottles? How about automatic watering systems?
    16. The good things about water bottles is they allow you to see that an animal is drinking because you can monitor the level of water in the bottle; also, a water bottle is specific to a cage, preventing it from being a source of cross-contamination with an adjacent cage; the con is water bottles take a lot of time to change; the pro about automatic watering systems is that they save labor; the cons are that you can't tell if an animal is drinking and they can become blocked or contaminated which could effect several cages of animals
  17. 17. Is it true that an animal's activity, social environment and structural environment are part of that animal's environmental enrichment program?
    17. Yes
  18. 18. Of the different types of restraint equipment that we discussed, which one is the least restrictive in terms of the animal's ability to move about?
    18. A tether essentially allows freedom of movement within a cage so it would be considered the least restrictive
  19. 19. How often should an animal that is physically restrained from movement be monitored?
    19. Continuously
  20. 20. What is the difference between the microenvironment of an animal and the macroenvironment?
    20. The microenvironment is the inside of the animal's cage while the macroenvironment is the room in which the cage sits
  21. 21. What are four examples of aspects or components of an animal facility that need to be monitored and maintained?
    21. The air flow in a room, the filters of the air handling system, the filters in the water supply system, the lights in animal rooms (including the photoperiod), etc.
  22. 22. Why is cracked or peeling paint a concern in an animal facility?
    22. Because pathogenic organisms can live behind the peeling paint, making it difficult to thoroughly disinfect the room
  23. 23. In general, how often should hanging wire cages should be sanitized?
    23. Wire bottom cages should be sanitized once every two weeks at a minimum
  24. 24. In general, at what temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) should most animal rooms be maintained?
    24. 68-72oF
  25. 25. What is an example of an animal that prefers the room temperature to be below the normal range of 68-72oF?
    25. Rabbits, adult chickens, adult swine
  26. 26. What are examples of animals that require a higher room temperature than the normal range of 68-72oF?
    26. Animals recovering from surgery, baby chickens (chicks) , baby pigs (piglets), many different species of reptiles
  27. 27. What range of humidity is adequate for most animal rooms?
    27. 40-70%
  28. 28. What are a wet/dry bulb thermometer and a hygrometer used to measure?
    28. Humiditiy
  29. 29. How many room air changes per hour should an animal room have?
    29. 10-15 room air changes per hour
  30. 30. What does HEPA stand for? Is air that has passed through a HEPA filter essentially sterile?
    30. HEPA = High Efficiency Particulate Air; yes, air that passes through a HEPA filter is essentially free of all microorganisms (sterile)
  31. 31. What is the difference between a room under positive pressure and one under negative pressure? Would you house animals that have been inoculated with a biohazard in a room with positive or negative pressure? How about a surgery room, should that be under positive or negative pressure?
    31. When the door into a room under positive pressure is opened, air moves from the room into the corridor; when the door into a room under negative pressure is opened, air moves from the corridor into the room; animals inoculated with a biohazard would be housed under negative pressure because you would want to contain the organism in the room; a surgery room would be under positive pressure to keep pathogens out of the room
  32. 32. What is the difference between Class I, Class II and Class III safety cabinets?
    32. Class I cabinets (also called open-front cabinets) use airflow within the cabinet to prevent escape of material and exhaust air is HEPA filtered; Class II cabinets are similar to Class I except the air coming into the cabinet is also HEPA filtered; Class III cabinets are completed enclosed, being accessed only through large, gloved access ports
  33. 33. What effect can noise have on animals? What are some common sources of noise found in animal rooms?
    33. Noise can be very stressful to some species of animals (most rodents (particularly mice and gerbils), rabbits and cats); common sources of noise are cage washing activities, movement of large equipment or supplies, noisy animals (dogs, birds, primates)
  34. 34. In terms of the lights in an animal room, what does the term photoperiod mean?
    34. Photoperiod refers to the number of hours the lights are on and the number of hours they're off. For example, in a room in which the lights go on at 6:00am and off at 6:00pm, the photoperiod would be 12/12
  35. 35. What variable can the use of overhead lighting in an animal room introduce?
    35. With overhead lighting, the intensity of light decreases as it gets closer to the floor; the intensity is therefore highest on the top shelf of a rack of cages; for light sensitive animals like albino mice, this could cause those closest to the source to go blind while those at the bottom of the rack don't
  36. 36. Of the three degrees of cleanliness that we talked about (sanitation, disinfection, sterilization), which one is the process by which the number of bacteria and other organisms on an object are reduced in number enough to prevent disease?
    36. Sanitation
  37. 37. Of the three degrees of cleanliness that we talked about (sanitation, disinfection, sterilization), which one is the process by which pathogenic organisms are destroyed or at least their growth inhibited?
    37. Disinfection
  38. 38. Of the three degrees of cleanliness that we talked about (sanitation, disinfection, sterilization), which one is the process by which all microorganisms on an object are destroyed?
    38. Sterilization
  39. 39. What is sodium hypochlorite?
    39. Sodium hypochlorite is bleach
  40. 40. What are some examples of disinfectants that we talked about?
    40. Bleach, alcohol, Coverage Plus, Envirocide
  41. 41. What is the difference between a disinfectant and a detergent?
    41. A disinfectant kills (or inhibits the growth of) pathogenic microorganisms whereas a detergent is just a soap which simply reduces the surface tension of water, making it more penetrating
  42. 42. What is an antiseptic?
    42. An antiseptic is a disinfectant that is formulated so that it can be applied to skin without causing burning it
  43. 43. Is it true that a cage washer uses temperature as a means of sanitizing a cage that is run through it? If so, how hot should the water be for this to happen?
    43. Yes, 180oF
  44. 44. What does it mean to sanitize an object?
    44. To sanitize an object means to reduce the number of microorganisms on that object enough to prevent disease
  45. 45. For which animals is it often necessary to apply an acid to a cage or cage pan in order to neutralize the alkaline urine? What acid is often used for this purpose?
    45. Cages used to house animals who have alkaline urine need to be treated with acid; this includes rabbits and primates; the most common acids used for this purpose are urid acid and phosphoric acid
  46. 46. What are some examples of different types of cage washers?
    46. Rack washer, tunnel washer, cabinet washer
  47. 47. What are the most common ways that equipment in an animal facility is sterilized?
    47. The most common method of sterilizing equipment is with moist heat in an autoclave. Other methods include using chemicals (cold sterilants), dry heat and radiation
  48. 48. What temperature does an autoclave need to get up to in order to sterilize an object and for how long at a minimum? What pressure inside the autoclave is necessary for the water to get that hot? Why is it good to allow an autoclave to air out after the cycle is complete?
    48. An autoclave needs to be at 250 oF for 15 minutes (at a minimum) to sterilize the objects in it; the pressure necessary for an autoclave to reach 250 oF is 15psi. It is good to allow an autoclave to air out after the cycle is complete so that the moisture can dry out.
  49. 49. What temperature is necessary to convert water to steam?
    49. 212 oF
  50. 50. Why should dirty bedding not be dumped from a cage inside an animal room?
    50. Because it causes dust, the aerosolizing of particulate matter and because it's noisy
  51. 51. In what way might the physical state of an animal influence the frequency with which the animal's cage needs to be changed?
    51. The physical state of an animal may increase their urine or fecal output of change; as an example, animals that are diabetic produce much more urine than animals that are not, requiring that their cages be changed more often
  52. 52. What are some of the different characteristics of chemical disinfectants that need to be considered when evaluating these compounds?
    52. The types of organisms a disinfectant is effective against, the contact time, whether a disinfectant is effective when mixed with hard water, the use dilution of the disinfectant, whether the disinfectant is effective in the presence of organic matter, whether the disinfectant is toxic to the species of animals for which it will be used, etc.
  53. 53. What are some examples of methods for applying chemical disinfectants?
  54. 54. What do you call a disinfectant that kills bacterial spores?
    54. Sporocidal
  55. 55. What are some of the ways we discussed of monitoring the effectiveness of your sanitation efforts?
    55. Checking the temperature gauges of the cage washer to be sure the washer is reaching 180 oF, to run indicator strips through the washer to be sure they indicate that the washer is getting up to 180 oF, to monitor a cage after it has come out of the cage washer to determine how many microorganisms are left on it
  56. 56. What are some of the drawbacks of the use of autoclaves for sterilizing equipment?
    56. Some materials cannot be autoclaved and autoclaves can dull sharp instruments
  57. 57. A sterilized surgical pack wrapped in cloth is considered sterile for how long? How about one wrapped in plastic?
    57. A pack wrapped in cloth or plastic is considered sterile for 6 months following autoclaving and a pack wrapped in plastic is considered sterile for 1 year
  58. 58. What are some examples of chemicals we discussed that can be used as sterilizing agents (cold sterilants)? What are the drawbacks of the use of these chemicals?
    58. The most common cold sterilant is 2% peracetic acid; others include gluteraldehyde and ethylene oxide; the drawback of these chemicals is that they are very toxic
  59. 59. What is an example of something used in an animal facility that may have been irradiated prior to its arrival at your facility?
    59. Sometimes feed (especially rodent) has been irradiated prior to it arrival in order to kill microorganisms in it or on it
  60. 60. How can the effectiveness of your sterilization efforts be monitored?
    60. Sterilization effectiveness can be assessed by checking the gauges to be sure they are reaching the appropriate levels ( 15 psi, 250 oF for 15 minutes); running temperature indicators through an autoclave cycle to be sure they indicate that the appropriate temperature has been reached; running an ampule of Bacillus sterothermophilus through an autoclave cycle and then trying to culture the organism (they cannot survive 250 oF but they can survive temperatures close to that
  61. 61. What is the name of the bacteria used as a biological indicator for testing the effectiveness of an autoclave?
    61. Bacillus sterothermophilus
  62. 62. What are boric acid and silica powder used for?
    62. Boric acid and silica powder are used as pesticides in animal facilities because they are non-toxic to animals; they are particularly effective in controlling cockroaches
  63. 63. What is the best way to control pests in an animal facility?
    63. By building the animal facility in a way the keeps them from getting in in the first place
  64. 64. What qualities should a waste container have?
    64. It should be leak-proof, have an easily removable liner, if it has a lid, the lid should be tight fitting and it should be emptied regularly
  65. 65. What are the two ways in which water can be treated to prevent the growth of organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
    65. Water can be either acidified (have dilute acid added to it) or it can be chlorinated (have a dilute chlorine solution added to it)
  66. 66. What is meant by hazard identification and risk assessment?
    66. Hazard identification and risk assessment is the foundation of an occupational health program; what they mean is identifying all the hazards involved in working in a facility and then determining how much risk is associated with each of those hazards.
  67. 67. What are some examples of potential hazards that are likely to be found in an animal facility?
    67. Injury from lifting, chemical burns from disinfectants, zoonotic diseases, exposure to allergens, etc.
  68. 68. What does PPE stand for? What is the purpose of PPE?
    68. PPE = Personal Protective Equipment; PPE provides a barrier between the individual and the environment, thus minimizing exposure of the individual to hazards in the environment as well as minimizing the exposure of animals in the environment to potential pathogens found on the individual
  69. 69. What are examples of PPE?
    69. Uniform, lab coat, facility-devoted shoes, steel toe boots, face mask, face shield, gloves, protective sleeves, shoe covers, hair nets, etc.
  70. 70. Why is it so important to wash your hands often when working in an animal facility?
    70. To remove the various pathogens that one may come in contact with and which may be inadvertently passed from hand to mouth
  71. 71. What is the purpose of an occupational health program?
    71. An occupational health program educates individuals regarding potential occupational hazards and when possible medically protects (i.e. vaccinations) the individual from those hazards
  72. 72. What is the most common health concern associated with working with laboratory bred rats and mice in an animal facility?
    72. Developing an allergy to a protein in the urine of mice
  73. 73. What is necessary to shield a technician from the radiation of x-rays?
    73. A lead shield
  74. 74. For what pathogen should everyone working in an animal facility be vaccinated?
    74. Tetanus
  75. 75. In terms of containment and ability to clean, what type of cage material would be best when housing animals who have been given a radioisotope?
    75. Stainless steel
  76. 76. When recording temperature in a room, it is common to have a max/min thermometer that is checked daily and the high and low temperatures are recorded. What device would you use if you needed to have the temperature of a room recorded on a graph continuously?
    76. A thermograph records an animal room temperature constantly.
  77. 77. Does organic matter affect the ability of a disinfectant like bleach to kill pathogenic microorganisms like its supposed to?
    77. Yes, if organic matter is present on a surface you are trying to disinfect, it will inhibit the ability of bleach and most other disinfectants to kill the pathogens. Therefore, before applying a disinfectant, all debris should be removed from the object first.
  78. 78. Phenols are a type of disinfectant. For what animals should phenols never be used and why?
    78. Phenols should never be used with cats because they are drawn to the odor and taste of this compound and if ingested, is extremely toxic to them.
  79. 79. What is the name of the type of facility in which special effort is made to keep any potential pathogens out of the facility? What is the name of the type of facility in which special effort is made to contain pathogens within the facility?
    79. A barrier facility is the type of facility in which special effort is made to keep any potential pathogens out of the facility. A containment or biohazard facility is special effort is made to contain pathogens within the facility.
  80. 80. There are four ways of sterilizing materials. What are they and when would each be used?
    • 80. Moist heat - the most common; used to sterilize cages, bedding. waste, surgical equipment, etc. Dry heat - used to sterilize objects such as surgical instruments quickly (i.e. glass bead sterilizer)
    • Chemicals - used to sterilize objects that cannon be put in an autoclave or dry heat oven either because they are too big or because they are heat sensitive. Radiation - used to sterilize things that are both heat sensitive and should not be exposed to chemical (i.e. feed)
  81. 81. What are examples of chemicals that are cold sterilants?
    81. Examples of cold sterilants include glutaraldehyde, 2% peracetic acid, ethylene oxide.
  82. 82. When an automatic watering system is used to provide water to animals, where along the water's path is particulate matter filtered out?
    82. Particulate matter is filtered out at the pressure reducing station.
  83. 83. If mice weighing between 10 and 15 grams each require 8 square inches of space, how many can you house in a 48 square inch cage?
    83. 48 square inches divided by 8 square inches per mouse means you can house 6 animals per cage
  84. 84. What are recoil hoses commonly used for in an animal facility?
    84. Recoil hoses are used to connect a room's watering system to the manifold on the back of a rack of animals.
  85. 85. What are UV lights used for?
    85. UV lights emit ultraviolet light which will kill germs.
  86. 86. What type of material is used to make the cheapest plastic cages?
    86. Polystyrene
  87. 87. Would it be best to maintain biohazardous animals in a room under positive or negative pressure? How about animals in quarantine?
    87. Negative in order to keep the biohazards from getting out of the room. Animals in quarantine should also be housed in rooms under negative pressure since it is not certain if these animals are carrying any particular pathogens.
  88. 88. Of the types of metals used to make cages, which is the lowest in cost?
    88. galvanized
  89. 89. Should the airflow in a room containing animals inoculated with a biohazard be positive or negative relative to the corridor?
    89. Negative, which means that when the door to the room is opened, air will move from the hallway into the room, contained the biohazard in the room
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