1. 1. Is it true that genes determine the physical characteristics of an organism?
    1. Yes
  2. 2. Is it true that all of an animal's genes contain all of the information required to create a complete organism?
    2. Yes
  3. 3. Is it true that chromosomes are made up of individual genes?
    3. Yes
  4. 4. What is the name of the process by which one cell divides into two cells?
    4. Mitosis is the process of one cell dividing into two
  5. 5. What is the name of the process by which one cell divides into four cells? Which cells of the body undergo this process?
    5. Meiosis is the process of one cell dividing into four; sperm and eggs are the cells that undergo meiosis
  6. 6. What is the difference between dominant and recessive traits?
    6. Dominant traits are more easily expressed and only require that one of the two genes for a characteristic be for that trait. Recessive traits are less easily expressed and require that both genes for a characteristic be for that trait
  7. 7. If an animal has two genes for a given characteristic that are the same, is that animal said to by homozygous or
    • heterozygous for that trait? If two animals that are heterozygous for a given trait are mated, what percent of their offspring would be homozygous dominant?
    • 7. If the genes are the same, the animal is homozygous; if two animals that are heterozygous for a trait mate, 25% of their offspring would be homozygous dominant
  8. 8. What is the difference between the genotype of an animal and the phenotype of an animal?
    8. The genotype of an animal is the animal's genetic make-up and the phenotype is the physical make-up, what the animal looks like
  9. 9. What does a transgenic animal have that a non-transgenic animal doesn't?
    9. Transgenic animals are carrying a gene from a different species of animal
  10. 10. What is the estrous cycle of an animal? What is the name of the part of that cycle when a female is maximally in heat? What is the name of the part of the cycle when the reproductive tract is at rest?
    10. The estrous cycle of an animal is the reproductive cycle that prepares a female to become pregnant; the part of the cycle when the female is in heat is called estrus; the part of the cycle when the reproductive tract is at rest is anestrus
  11. 11. What does it mean to superovulate an animal?
    11. Superovulation is the injection of hormones into a female to make her ovulate
  12. 12. What is the difference between a spontaneous ovulator and an induced ovulator? What are three examples of animals that are induced ovulators?
    12. A spontaneous ovulator will automatically ovulate (release an egg from the ovary) at a certain part of her reproductive cycle, an induced ovulator will only release an egg if a male penetrates her; rabbits, cats and ferrets are induced ovulators
  13. 13. What is a zygote?
    13. A fertilized egg
  14. 14. Is it true that gestation is the length of time from fertilization of an egg until birth?
    14. Yes
  15. 15. What is the correct order of the reproductive events as listed below:
    • lactation, parturition, ovulation, gestation, weaning, fertilization
    • 15. ovulation, fertilization, gestation, parturition, lactation, weaning
  16. 16. What is a vaginal plug?
    16. A vaginal plug is a plug of hardened semen left by the male in the reproductive tract of the female. The purpose of the plug is to keep that male's sperm in the female's reproductive tract as well as to keep another male's sperm from entering the tract
  17. 17. What does parturition mean? When would you expect an animal to go into post-partum estrus?
  18. 18. What does puberty mean? How about dystocia?
    18. Puberty means able to reproduce, sexually mature; dystocia means difficult or abnormal birth
  19. 19. When a group of mice are being inbred, who is being mated with whom? What is hybrid breeding?
    19. When animals are inbred, related individuals, such as parent and offspring or brother and sister are mated; hybrid breeding is the mating of two inbred strains of animals
  20. 20. Is a strain of animals inbred or is it a stock of animals that's inbred? What symbol is used to denote inbred?
    20. Animals that are inbred are called a strain and animals that are not inbred are called a stock; inbred strains are usually designated by capital letters or a combination of capital letters and numbers (i.e. DBA or C57BL)
  21. 21. A population of animals in considered inbred after how many generations of inbreeding?
    21. 20 generations
  22. 22. For which animals do you not generally keep the males and females together but instead bring the female to the males cage just for breeding purposes?
    22. Hamsters, rabbits and cats are mated by bringing the females to the male's cage (which is called a separate housing mating scheme)
  23. 23. What is unique about knockout animals?
    23. Knockout animals have had a gene or gene sequence either removed (knocked out) or turned off
  24. 24. What is one example of how DNA is inserted into a fertilized egg?
    24. Pronuclear injection
  25. 25. What is the Whitten effect?
    25. If only female animals are housed together, their estrous cycles may stop; if a male is then introduced, all the females will then go into heat about three days later; this is called the Whitten effect
  26. 26. If two animals are said to be clones of each other, what does that mean?
    26. They are genetically identical
  27. 27. What is the term for an animal that has some cells that contain newly inserted DNA and some cells that don't?
    27. Chimera
  28. 28. What are the six different types of nutrients?
    28. Water, carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals
  29. 29. Of the six different types of nutrients, which one is the most important?
    29. Water is the most important nutrient
  30. 30. The water supply in rodent facilities is often acidified. Why is that?
    30. Adding acid to the water will kill any microorganisms in the water
  31. 31. Of the six different types of nutrients, which three are used by the body for energy? What is the order in which your body uses those nutrients?
    31. Protein, carbohydrate and fat are used by the body for energy; your body uses carbohydrate first, fat next and then protein last
  32. 32. Which type of nutrient is made up of amino acids?
    32. Proteins are made up of amino acids
  33. 33. What is the difference between essential and non-essential nutrients? What is the difference between a complete and an incomplete protein?
    33. Essential nutrient are not produced by the body and therefore it is essential that they be consumed, non-essential nutrients can be produced by the body; Complete proteins contain all the essential amino acids and incomplete proteins don't
  34. 34. Is it true that fats are also called lipids or triglycerides?
    34. Yes
  35. 35. Is it true that food energy is usually expressed as calories?
    35. Yes
  36. 36. Give a couple of examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
    36. Glucose and fructose are examples of monosaccharides, sucrose and maltose are examples of disaccharides and starch and cellulose are examples of polysaccharides
  37. 37. What are examples of the fat soluble vitamins?
    37. A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins
  38. 38. What is a proximate analysis used for and what are the six components? Which of the six component represents carbohydrates?
    38. A proximate analysis is an estimate of the amounts of nutrients in a chow and it is used to make rough comparisons of different chows. The six components are crude protein, crude fat, ash (minerals), moisture (water), fiber (undigestible stuff), nitrogen-free extract (carbohydrates)
  39. 39. What does it mean for a food to be purified?
    39. A purified diet is also called chemical defined and is one in which each of the specific ingredients in the food are known.
  40. 40. What is a certified diet certified for?
    40. A certified diet is certified for what it doesn't have it is certified to be free of pesticides and toxins
  41. 41. As far as non purified diets, what is the difference between open and closed formulas?
    41. An open formula diet is one in which the ingredient list is open meaning different ingredients could be used in different batches; a closed formula diet is one in which the ingredient list is closed meaning the same ingredients are always used
  42. 42. Why is important to keep track of when animal chows are used?
    42. Because the chows are only considered good for a certain amount of time: 180 days for chows without vitamin C and 90 days for chows with vitamin C
  43. 43. What do you call the type of food that has additional nutrients added so that when it is sterilized, there are enough nutrients left over?
    43. Autoclavable
  44. 44. Which types of animals are usually fed pelleted diets?
    44. Animals that primarily eat plants (herbivores) are usually fed pelleted diets
  45. 45. Which types of animals are usually fed extruded feeds?
    45. Animals that eat other animals (carnivores) or animals that usually eat both plants and animals (omnivores) are usually ed extruded diets
  46. 46. Which type of feed, pelleted or extruded, tends to be higher in fat?
    46. Extruded diets tend to be higher in fat
  47. 47. What is the shelf life of non-vitamin C containing feed?
    47. 180 days from the date of milling
  48. 48. What is the shelf life of feed that does contain vitamin C? What laboratory animals require vitamin C in their diet?
    48. 90 days from the date of milling; guinea pigs and primates require vitamin c in their diet
  49. 49. How should lab animal feed generally be stored? What environmental characteristic is lab animal feed most harmed by?
    49. Animal feed should be stored on pallets, away from walls and in a cool, dark and dry environment. Lab animal is most harmed by high heat and excessive exposure to light.
  50. 50. What is a concern related to ground feed?
    50. Ground feed has a higher dust content which can cause respiratory problems in some species.
  51. 51. Of the different types of feed (canned, pelleted, extruded, ground), which has the longest shelf life? How about the shortest?
    51. Canned feed has the longest shelf life, ground feed has the shortest shelf life.
  52. 52. What would be the purpose of administering gonadotropin to an animal.
    52. Gonadotropin is given to a female to induce ovulation. This can be done prior to removal of an egg for invitro fertilization.
  53. 53. What is a knockout animal?
    53. A knockout is an animal that has had a gene or sequence of genes either removed or "turned off" such that the gene or genes are no longer expressed.
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