Psychology Exam/Final

  1. Who were the researchers?
    High serotonin levels cause hallucinations in Buddhist monks
    Kasamatsu and Hirai, 1999
  2. Who were the researchers?
    Acetylcholine levels were manipulated in rats to observe the effect on their memory of a maze; those with lower acetylcholine levels had more difficulty remembering the maze
    Martinez and Kesner, 1991
  3. Researcher?
    After a research on his patient, “Tan,” he discovered an area of the brain related to speech production
    Paul Broca
  4. Researcher? 
    Discovered an area of the brain responsible for speech comprehension
    Carl Wernicke
  5. Researcher?
    Their research showed a connection between high testosterone levels and antisocial
    behavior in men
    Dabbs and Morris
  6. Researcher? 
    Famous for work with split-brain patients whose corpus callosum was severed
    Roger Sperry or Michael Gazzinaga
  7. Researcher?
    Their research showed that rats raised in a stimulating environment showed more brain development than rats in a control group and rats in an impoverished environment
    Rosenzweig and Bennett
  8. Researcher?
    Developed the concept of “fight or flight” as our natural response to stress
    Walter Cannon
  9. Researcher?
    Created what is known as the General Adaptation Syndrome which has 3 phases to our physical response to stress
    Hans Sely
  10. Researcher?
    Created the “Type A” and “Type B”personalities and concluded that “Type A” personalities are more susceptible to coronary heart disease
    Friedman and Rosenman
  11. Researcher?
    Conducted several studies on identical twins…many of which were separated at birth and then reunited many years later; conclusion was that their similarities were largely due to genetics
    Thomas Bouchard
  12. Researcher?
    Created a tame breed of foxes showing that a behavioral trait can be passed on from one generation to the next; evidence for the evolutionary perspective
    Belyaev and Trut
  13. Researcher?
    Showed an evolutionary explanation for the feeling of disgust
    Fessler, 2006
  14. Researcher?
    Radical Behaviorist who believed behavior only occurs because of learning such as with the process of classical conditioning; known
    for his conditioning of Little Albert
    John Watson
  15. Researcher?
    Conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell
    Ivan Pavlov
  16. Researcher?
    Created an operant chamber to illustrate the process of operant conditioning; For example, birds were reinforced to peck a button by receiving food
    B.F. Skinner
  17. Researcher?
    Created the concept of latent learning by showing that rats who roamed a maze without a reinforcer still learned and created a cognitive map of the maze
    E.C Tolman
  18. Researcher?
    Showed the idea of insight with his challenges to a chimp named Sultan
    Wolfgang Kohler
  19. Researcher?
    Showed the power of schemas in their study involving the items in a house and which items could be remembered from the perspective of a house buyer or burglar
    Anderson and Pichert
  20. Researcher?
    Showed the power of cultural schemas on our interpretation and memory of a story called, “The War of the Ghosts”
    Frederic Bartlett
  21. Researcher?
    Created the multistore memory model: sensory memory, STM, and LTM
    Atkinson and Shiffrin
  22. Researcher?
    In his numerous studies on memory, he created the forgetting curve
    Herman Ebbinghaus
  23. Researcher?
    Showed the influence of the “spacing effect” on learning and memory
    Harry Bahrick
  24. Researcher?
    Showed the influence of the serial position effect with immediate and delayed free recall
    Glanzer and Cunitz
  25. Researcher?
    Created the theory of “Levels of Processing” in that we encode information differently sometimes in a shallow manner and other times in a deep manner
    Craik and Lockhart
  26. Researcher?
    Their study compared different levels of processing and participants were asked to encode words at different levels; they concluded that semantic encoding creates better memory than structural or acoustic encoding
    Craik and Tulving
  27. Researcher?
    Created the “Magic Number 7” which refers to how many bits of information we can process in STM
    George Miller
  28. Researcher?
    During ESB, patients reported what he thought were memories
    Wilder Penfield
  29. Researcher?
    Rats learned a maze; cut out a piece of cortex and no matter what was removed, rats retained some memory
    Karl Lashley
  30. Researcher?
    False presuppositions in questions can affect the accuracy of recall of an event
    Elizabeth Loftus
  31. Researcher?
    Created theory on Flashbulb memories; their empirical research of 80 American participants provided evidence that people do create flashbulb memories
    Brown and Kulik, 1977
  32. Behaviorism: basic assumptions
    • All behavior can be explained in terms of learning
    • Emphasis is on external and observable behavior only
    • All behavior is determined by environmental influences; We are born as a blank slate
    • It is important to base research on animal experimentation
  33. Behaviorism: law of effect
    any response that leads to a satisfying outcome is likely to be repeated; with an unpleasant outcome, response is not likely to be repeated
  34. Behaviorism: classical conditioning
    • Learning that occurs when an organism comes to associate stimuli
    • fundamental kind of learning (Ivan Pavlov)
  35. Behaviorism: Little Albert
    • John Watson's classical conditioning experiment
    • US: Loud Gong
    • UR: Fear
    • CS: White rat
    • CR: Fear of rat
  36. Behaviorism: Operant conditioning
    Behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punishser
  37. Biological: Evolutionary Psychology
    • Those who adapt best to the environment will have a great chance of surviving
    • Charles Darwin: Theory of natural selection
    • Study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection
  38. Biological: brain plasticity
    Brain's ability to rearrange the connections between its neurons

    • "High levels of stimulation and numerous learning opportunities at the appropriate times lead to an increase in the density of
    • neural connections"
  39. Biological: Mirror neurons
    • Sometimes we learn by observing others "monkey see, monkey do"
    • Mirror neurons fire when one performs a task but also when one observes someone performing that task
    • Also involved in empathy
  40. Cognitive: Basic Principles
    • Human beings are info processors; therefore, mental processes guide behavior
    • The mind can be studied scientifically
    • Cognitive process are influenced by social and cultural factors
  41. Cognitive: latent learning
    A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
  42. Cognitive maps
    Mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli
  43. Cognitive: insight
    A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically characterized by a change in behavior from random responding to rule-based responding
  44. Cognitive: Reaction against behaviorism
    Disagreed with behaviorists as CLOA believed that the mind can be studied scientifically.
  45. Cognitive: mediation
    The emphasis on mediating processes is central to the cognitive approach 
  46. Schema theory
    What we already know will influence the outcome of information processing

    • Schema= pre-stored mental representations: like file cabinets.
    • -change the way we interpret events
    • -distortions: info we add in, in order to make sense of something
  47. What are the strengths of the schema theory?
    • Schemas affect cognitive processes such as memory.
    • Quite useful for understanding how people categorize information, interpret stories,and make inferences.
  48. What are the limitations of the schema theory?
    • It is not entirely clear how schemas are acquired in the first place and how they actually influence cognitive processes.
    • Too vague
  49. Cognitive: Working memory
    • Sensory info enters or LTM info entersinfo is directed based on auditory or visual elements
    • diagram
  50. Cognitive: forgetting curve
    • Much of what we learn we may quickly forget
    • The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time
  51. Cognitive: encoding
    this is the process of transforming sensory information into the long-term memory. 
  52. Cognitive: serial position effect
    The idea that we remember the first and last item of a collection more accurately.
  53. Cognitive: levels of processing
    Craik and Lockhart: Theory that semantic memory is deeper and more accurately remembered
  54. Cognitive: Storage
    • Creating a biological trace of information in your brain.
    • Holding information for later reference. 
  55. Cognitive: Iconic and echoic memory
    • Iconic is fleeting photographic memory, very short. 
    • Echoic is momentary sensory info from auditory stimuli. 
  56. Cognitive: retrieval cues
    things that bring to mind information that you have stored. 
  57. Cognitive: priming
    Priming is the idea of showing subliminal messages in order to prepare the person for the upcoming question. 
  58. Cognitive: state dependent memory
    • The theory that you remember information better when you attempt to recall it from the state in which you learned it.
    • (EX: alcohol….learn drunk, recall the info drunk for better results)
  59. Cognitive: proactive & retroactive interference
    Proactive is interference in memory that happens after the event, retroactive happens from an experience before that memory. 
  60. Cognitive: Explicit memory
    • Declarative
    • Can consciously retrieve factual information
    • 2 categories: 
    •        Semantic: memory of general knowledge
    •        Episodic: memory for personal experiences & events
  61. Cognitive: Implicit memory
    • Not consciously aware of
    • 2 categories:
    •        Procedural: skills, habits, and actions
    •        Emotional:
  62. Cognitive: hippocampus, amygdala, and memory
    • Hippocampus- formation of explicit memories
    • Amygdala- formation of emotional memories
  63. Cognitive: anterograde & retrograde amnesia
    • Amnesia is the inability to learn new information or retrieve previously stored information.
    • Anterograde is the failure to store NEW memories, while Retrograde is the inability to recall OLD memories. 
  64. Cognitive: Clive Wearing
    Encephalitis damages parts of the brain involved with memory; has memory of only a few seconds
  65. Cognitive: HM
    • Surgery which removed parts of the temporal lobe because of epileptic seizures 
    • Resulted in anterograde ammensia
  66. Cognitive: Flashbulb memories
    Memories that are very vivid and are of highly emotional moments in ones life. 
  67. Cognitive: memory and individualist/collectivist cultures
    • Individualist: persons are viewed as unique and autonmous with distinctive qualities and individual automony
    • Collectivist: identity is defined more by the characteristics of the collective groups to which one belongs
  68. Biological: Basic principles
    • 1) there are biological coorelates of behavior 2)behavior can be innate as it is biologically based
    • 3) Psychological research provides insight into human behavior.
  69. Biological: central nervous system
    • Composed of the brain and brain stem.
    • Handles all of our information.
  70. Biological: neurons
    The building blocks of the central nervous system-send chemical messages to the brain
  71. Biological: synapse
    neurotransmitters communicate across this gap and fit into receptors.
  72. Biological:  neurotransmission
    • The sending of chemical messages in the brain.
    • Can change behavior.
  73. Biological: examples of neruotransmitters
    • -Acetylcholine: Aids in memory…look at Martinez+kessner 1991
    • -Dopamine: is responsible for “rewarding” ourselves, as it produces pleasure
    • -Norepinephrine: hormone and neurotransmitter, increases heart rate
    • -Serotonin: aids in memory and learning, but is primarily in charge of monitoring sleep
  74. Biological: reductionism
    Breaking down complex human behavior into its simplest parts, for example, focusing on behavior as a result of neurotransmission is “reductionist”.
  75. Biological: types of psychoactive drugs & their affect on neurotransmitters
    Stimulants(caffeine, cocaine, etc.): Dopamine

    Depressants(Alcohol, Barbiturates, etc.): GABA, Glutamate

    Anti-Anxiety drugs(Valium, etc.):

    Anti-depressants( Prozac, etc.):

    Hallucinogens(LSD, MDMA, etc.): Serotonin
  76. Frontal Lobe
    • Is the emotional control center.
    • Deals with…impulse control, reasoning, etc.
  77. Parietal Lobe
     Perception of stimuli like touches and pressure
  78. Temporal Lobe
     concerned with perception, hearing and memory. 
  79. Occipital Lobe
    deals with vision.
  80. Cerebellum
     handles movement and coordination(balance)
  81. Brain Stem
    • sends messages to everywhere in the body.
    • 3 parts
    •       Midbrain
    •       Medulla
    •       Pons. 
  82. Cortex
    • outer layer of brain.
    • Has an impact on speech and perception.
  83. Biological: localization of function
    Is the assumption that specific functions are associated with specific areas of the brain
  84. Phineas Gage
    R.R. worker injured by explosion, in which a long rod shot through his head, and destroyed his frontal lobe. Was physically ok after, but his personality vastly changed. 
  85. Limbic system and its parts
    • Is a series of subcortical structures that are involved in many simple functions. 
    • Hypothalamus: emotions and circadian rhythm, and also hunger, thirst and sex drives.
    • Thalamus: Brains sensory switchboard. Controls our senses (hearing, smell…).
    • Hippocampus: memory function and formation
    • Amygdala: basic emotions like fear and rage. 
  86. Endocrine system
    Is the body’s “slow” chemical messaging system. Secretes hormones into the bloodstream. Constituted of glands like ovaries, testes, thyroids, and pituitary. 
  87. Biological: hormones
    • Chemical messages involved with metabolism and long-term functioning of the body.
    • They take longer to act as they are in the bloodstream.
  88. Examples of hormones and their functions
    Adrenaline- fight or flight, arousal

    Cortisol- Arousal, Stress hormone, memory

    Melatonin- Regulation of sleep

    Oxytocin- mother to child attachment

    Testosterone Estrogen- development and emotion
  89. Biological: lateralization of function
    The idea that each side of our brain houses different functions. 
  90. Biological: hemispheres and functions
    • -Left: logic, reason, math, language, reading, writing, linear thinking, analysis.
    • -Right: recogniction, faces, patterns, rhythm, visual, images, depth, creativity, art
  91. Biological: corpus callosum
    The band of nerves that connect the hemispheres of the brain. In split-brain patients, the corpus collosum is severed. 
  92. Biological: cortisol,epinephrine, norepinephrine and stress
    • Cortisol is a steroid released due to stress, but is also present in the mother-child relationship.
    • Epinephrine is adrenaline
    • Norepinephrine...
    •  Stress is our reaction to change. 
  93. Biological: stress and the immune system
    Stress affects the immune system, as more coritcosteroids leads to a decrease in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells like T-cells and B-cells who fight virus and bacteria.
  94. Biological: chromosomes, DNA, genes
    DNA is the building block of chromosomes, while genes are essentially the “purpose” of the chromosome. As humans we have 46 chromosomes.
  95. Biological: adoptive families
    Adoptees are more like their biological parents in terms of temperament, but the adoptive parents have a bigger impact in terms of beliefs and other more complex things.
  96. Biological: temperaments
    these are our basic emotional characteristics and basic emotions like anger, jealousy etc. The BLOA claims we are generally born with a set temperament.
  97. Biological: gender & exposure to testosterone
    In general, if a female is exposed to more testosterone in the womb, she will be more “tomboyish”, and vice versa for guys with estrogen. Amount of the respective sex hormone can change behavior. 
  98. David Reimer
    After a botched circumcision, he was raised to be a girl. His parents did their best to raise him as a normal girl, but eventually it became clear he was actually a dude. This case is huge in the argument of nature vs nurture. He eventually killed himself in 2004
  99. Hindsight bias
    when we reflect on events, we tend to view them as more favorable then they actually were. Also makes things out to be obvious, when at the time they may not have been. 
  100. Replication
    Replicating a memory or event from the past in your head
  101. Case study
    The study of an individual who has a very peculiar situation, but these cannot be applied to the population as case studies are very individual.
  102. Population
    The people that the experiment is evaluating
  103. Random sampling
    randomly picking someone from the population. 
  104. Naturalistic observation
    The observation of phenomena in its natural environment, the best example is watching monkeys in the jungle in Africa, instead of a zoo.
  105. Correlation
    • When one trait affects the other.
    • Correlation does not prove causation however
  106. Experimental and control conditions
    Control is the group that you will reference too when evaluating the data, and experimental is the group who are tested in the hypothesis.
  107. Placebo effect
    • The idea that by thinking something is actually working, it will suddenly appear to get better
    •  best example is a sugar pill vs. a real medicine. If given the sugar pill, people may BELIEVE they are getting help, thus prompting them actually improving. 
  108. Independent and dependent variables
    independent will stay the same regardless, but dependent relies on the independent variable. 
  109. Psychology
    the Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  110. Empiricism
    The philosophy that science should rely on experimentation and observation.
  111. Wilhelm Wundt
    first psychological laboratory in Germany, 1879. Because of him, new schools of thought evolve.
  112. Nature vs. Nurture
    The argument between whether or not we are born with a predetermined personality, or if we are a product of our environment.
  113. Charles Darwin
    The man who created the theory of evolution, also the idea of Natural Selection.
  114. Basic research
    Research that is intended to build a base of knowledge
  115. Applied research
    research intended to solve practical problems
  116. Psychiatry vs. Psycholgoy
    Psychiatry is a M.D., so you have to go to med school, and you can prescribe medicine. While Psychology is more research based, Psychiatry is more applied.
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Psychology Exam/Final
Final ahh you got this