Who were the researchers?
High serotonin levels cause hallucinations in Buddhist monks
Kasamatsu and Hirai, 1999
Who were the researchers?
Acetylcholine levels were manipulated in rats to observe the effect on their memory of a maze; those with lower acetylcholine levels had more difficulty remembering the maze
Martinez and Kesner, 1991
After a research on his patient, “Tan,” he discovered an area of the brain related to speech production
Discovered an area of the brain responsible for speech comprehension
Their research showed a connection between high testosterone levels and antisocial
behavior in men
Dabbs and Morris
Famous for work with split-brain patients whose corpus callosum was severed
Roger Sperry or Michael Gazzinaga
Their research showed that rats raised in a stimulating environment showed more brain development than rats in a control group and rats in an impoverished environment
Rosenzweig and Bennett
Developed the concept of “fight or flight” as our natural response to stress
Created what is known as the General Adaptation Syndrome which has 3 phases to our physical response to stress
Created the “Type A” and “Type B”personalities and concluded that “Type A” personalities are more susceptible to coronary heart disease
Friedman and Rosenman
Conducted several studies on identical twins…many of which were separated at birth and then reunited many years later; conclusion was that their similarities were largely due to genetics
Created a tame breed of foxes showing that a behavioral trait can be passed on from one generation to the next; evidence for the evolutionary perspective
Belyaev and Trut
Showed an evolutionary explanation for the feeling of disgust
Radical Behaviorist who believed behavior only occurs because of learning such as with the process of classical conditioning; known
for his conditioning of Little Albert
Conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell
Created an operant chamber to illustrate the process of operant conditioning; For example, birds were reinforced to peck a button by receiving food
Created the concept of latent learning by showing that rats who roamed a maze without a reinforcer still learned and created a cognitive map of the maze
Showed the idea of insight with his challenges to a chimp named Sultan
Showed the power of schemas in their study involving the items in a house and which items could be remembered from the perspective of a house buyer or burglar
Anderson and Pichert
Showed the power of cultural schemas on our interpretation and memory of a story called, “The War of the Ghosts”
Created the multistore memory model: sensory memory, STM, and LTM
Atkinson and Shiffrin
In his numerous studies on memory, he created the forgetting curve
Showed the influence of the “spacing effect” on learning and memory
Showed the influence of the serial position effect with immediate and delayed free recall
Glanzer and Cunitz
Created the theory of “Levels of Processing” in that we encode information differently sometimes in a shallow manner and other times in a deep manner
Craik and Lockhart
Their study compared different levels of processing and participants were asked to encode words at different levels; they concluded that semantic encoding creates better memory than structural or acoustic encoding
Craik and Tulving
Created the “Magic Number 7” which refers to how many bits of information we can process in STM
During ESB, patients reported what he thought were memories
Rats learned a maze; cut out a piece of cortex and no matter what was removed, rats retained some memory
False presuppositions in questions can affect the accuracy of recall of an event
Created theory on Flashbulb memories; their empirical research of 80 American participants provided evidence that people do create flashbulb memories
Brown and Kulik, 1977
Behaviorism: basic assumptions
All behavior can be explained in terms of learning
Emphasis is on external and observable behavior only
All behavior is determined by environmental influences; We are born as a blank slate
It is important to base research on animal experimentation
Behaviorism: law of effect
any response that leads to a satisfying outcome is likely to be repeated; with an unpleasant outcome, response is not likely to be repeated
Behaviorism: classical conditioning
Learning that occurs when an organism comes to associate stimuli
fundamental kind of learning (Ivan Pavlov)
Behaviorism: Little Albert
John Watson's classical conditioning experiment
US: Loud Gong
CS: White rat
CR: Fear of rat
Behaviorism: Operant conditioning
Behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punishser
Biological: Evolutionary Psychology
Those who adapt best to the environment will have a great chance of surviving
Charles Darwin: Theory of natural selection
Study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection
Biological: brain plasticity
Brain's ability to rearrange the connections between its neurons
"High levels of stimulation and numerous learning opportunities at the appropriate times lead to an increase in the density of
Biological: Mirror neurons
Sometimes we learn by observing others "monkey see, monkey do"
Mirror neurons fire when one performs a task but also when one observes someone performing that task
Also involved in empathy
Cognitive: Basic Principles
Human beings are info processors; therefore, mental processes guide behavior
The mind can be studied scientifically
Cognitive process are influenced by social and cultural factors
Cognitive: latent learning
A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
Mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli
A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically characterized by a change in behavior from random responding to rule-based responding
Cognitive: Reaction against behaviorism
Disagreed with behaviorists as CLOA believed that the mind can be studied scientifically.
The emphasis on mediating processes is central to the cognitive approach
What we already know will influence the outcome of information processing
Schema= pre-stored mental representations: like file cabinets.
-change the way we interpret events
-distortions: info we add in, in order to make sense of something
What are the strengths of the schema theory?
Schemas affect cognitive processes such as memory.
Quite useful for understanding how people categorize information, interpret stories,and make inferences.
What are the limitations of the schema theory?
It is not entirely clear how schemas are acquired in the first place and how they actually influence cognitive processes.
Cognitive: Working memory
Sensory info enters or LTM info entersinfo is directed based on auditory or visual elements
Cognitive: forgetting curve
Much of what we learn we may quickly forget
The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time
this is the process of transforming sensory information into the long-term memory.
Cognitive: serial position effect
The idea that we remember the first and last item of a collection more accurately.
Cognitive: levels of processing
Craik and Lockhart: Theory that semantic memory is deeper and more accurately remembered
Creating a biological trace of information in your brain.
Holding information for later reference.
Cognitive: Iconic and echoic memory
Iconic is fleeting photographic memory, very short.
Echoic is momentary sensory info from auditory stimuli.
Cognitive: retrieval cues
things that bring to mind information that you have stored.
Priming is the idea of showing subliminal messages in order to prepare the person for the upcoming question.
Cognitive: state dependent memory
The theory that you remember information better when you attempt to recall it from the state in which you learned it.
(EX: alcohol….learn drunk, recall the info drunk for better results)
Cognitive: proactive & retroactive interference
Proactive is interference in memory that happens after the event, retroactive happens from an experience before that memory.
Cognitive: Explicit memory
Can consciously retrieve factual information
Semantic: memory of general knowledge
Episodic: memory for personal experiences & events
Cognitive: Implicit memory
Not consciously aware of
Procedural: skills, habits, and actions
Cognitive: hippocampus, amygdala, and memory
Hippocampus- formation of explicit memories
Amygdala- formation of emotional memories
Cognitive: anterograde & retrograde amnesia
Amnesia is the inability to learn new information or retrieve previously stored information.
Anterograde is the failure to store NEW memories, while Retrograde is the inability to recall OLD memories.
Cognitive: Clive Wearing
Encephalitis damages parts of the brain involved with memory; has memory of only a few seconds
Surgery which removed parts of the temporal lobe because of epileptic seizures
Resulted in anterograde ammensia
Cognitive: Flashbulb memories
Memories that are very vivid and are of highly emotional moments in ones life.
Cognitive: memory and individualist/collectivist cultures
Individualist: persons are viewed as unique and autonmous with distinctive qualities and individual automony
Collectivist: identity is defined more by the characteristics of the collective groups to which one belongs
Biological: Basic principles
1) there are biological coorelates of behavior 2)behavior can be innate as it is biologically based
3) Psychological research provides insight into human behavior.
Biological: central nervous system
Composed of the brain and brain stem.
Handles all of our information.
The building blocks of the central nervous system-send chemical messages to the brain
neurotransmitters communicate across this gap and fit into receptors.
The sending of chemical messages in the brain.
Can change behavior.
Biological: examples of neruotransmitters
-Acetylcholine: Aids in memory…look at Martinez+kessner 1991
-Dopamine: is responsible for “rewarding” ourselves, as it produces pleasure
-Norepinephrine: hormone and neurotransmitter, increases heart rate
-Serotonin: aids in memory and learning, but is primarily in charge of monitoring sleep
Breaking down complex human behavior into its simplest parts, for example, focusing on behavior as a result of neurotransmission is “reductionist”.
Biological: types of psychoactive drugs & their affect on neurotransmitters
Is the body’s “slow” chemical messaging system. Secretes hormones into the bloodstream. Constituted of glands like ovaries, testes, thyroids, and pituitary.
Chemical messages involved with metabolism and long-term functioning of the body.
They take longer to act as they are in the bloodstream.
Examples of hormones and their functions
Adrenaline- fight or flight, arousal
Cortisol- Arousal, Stress hormone, memory
Melatonin- Regulation of sleep
Oxytocin- mother to child attachment
Testosterone Estrogen- development and emotion
Biological: lateralization of function
The idea that each side of our brain houses different functions.
Biological: hemispheres and functions
-Left: logic, reason, math, language, reading, writing, linear thinking, analysis.
-Right: recogniction, faces, patterns, rhythm, visual, images, depth, creativity, art
Biological: corpus callosum
The band of nerves that connect the hemispheres of the brain. In split-brain patients, the corpus collosum is severed.
Biological: cortisol,epinephrine, norepinephrine and stress
Cortisol is a steroid released due to stress, but is also present in the mother-child relationship.
Epinephrine is adrenaline
Stress is our reaction to change.
Biological: stress and the immune system
Stress affects the immune system, as more coritcosteroids leads to a decrease in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells like T-cells and B-cells who fight virus and bacteria.
Biological: chromosomes, DNA, genes
DNA is the building block of chromosomes, while genes are essentially the “purpose” of the chromosome. As humans we have 46 chromosomes.
Biological: adoptive families
Adoptees are more like their biological parents in terms of temperament, but the adoptive parents have a bigger impact in terms of beliefs and other more complex things.
these are our basic emotional characteristics and basic emotions like anger, jealousy etc. The BLOA claims we are generally born with a set temperament.
Biological: gender & exposure to testosterone
In general, if a female is exposed to more testosterone in the womb, she will be more “tomboyish”, and vice versa for guys with estrogen. Amount of the respective sex hormone can change behavior.
After a botched circumcision, he was raised to be a girl. His parents did their best to raise him as a normal girl, but eventually it became clear he was actually a dude. This case is huge in the argument of nature vs nurture. He eventually killed himself in 2004
when we reflect on events, we tend to view them as more favorable then they actually were. Also makes things out to be obvious, when at the time they may not have been.
Replicating a memory or event from the past in your head
The study of an individual who has a very peculiar situation, but these cannot be applied to the population as case studies are very individual.
The people that the experiment is evaluating
randomly picking someone from the population.
The observation of phenomena in its natural environment, the best example is watching monkeys in the jungle in Africa, instead of a zoo.
When one trait affects the other.
Correlation does not prove causation however
Experimental and control conditions
Control is the group that you will reference too when evaluating the data, and experimental is the group who are tested in the hypothesis.
The idea that by thinking something is actually working, it will suddenly appear to get better
best example is a sugar pill vs. a real medicine. If given the sugar pill, people may BELIEVE they are getting help, thus prompting them actually improving.
Independent and dependent variables
independent will stay the same regardless, but dependent relies on the independent variable.
the Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The philosophy that science should rely on experimentation and observation.
first psychological laboratory in Germany, 1879. Because of him, new schools of thought evolve.
Nature vs. Nurture
The argument between whether or not we are born with a predetermined personality, or if we are a product of our environment.
The man who created the theory of evolution, also the idea of Natural Selection.
Research that is intended to build a base of knowledge
research intended to solve practical problems
Psychiatry vs. Psycholgoy
Psychiatry is a M.D., so you have to go to med school, and you can prescribe medicine. While Psychology is more research based, Psychiatry is more applied.