15.3.3

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  1. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    New Russian State
    • a.      New Russian state (15th) under leadership of principality of Moscow and grand dukes
    •                                                               i.      Ivan the Terrible (16th)= first ruler t take tsar
    • 1.      Expanded territories of Russia eastward after western expansion blocked by Swedes and Poles
    • 2.      Extended autocracy of the tsar by crushing the power of the Russian nobility, known as boyars
    • 3.      Dynasty ended in 1598 and followed by resurgence of aristocratic power in period of anarchy called Time of Troubles
    • a.      Ended when Zemsky Sobor, or national assembly, chose Michael Romanov as new tsar
  2. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    17th
    • a.      17th: Muscovite society stratified
    •                                                               i.      Tsar at top: divine
    •                                                             ii.      Upper class of landed aristocrats who, by 17th, could bind peasants to land
    • 1.      Serfdom desibrable to landowners with abundance of land and shortange of peasants
    • 2.      Townspeople also controlled
    • a.      Merchants not allowed to move without government permission or sell business to anyone outside class
  3. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Merchant and Peasant Revolts
    •                                                               i.      Merchant and Peasant revolts and schism in Russian Orthodox Church
    • 1.      17th century Moscow experiencing contacts with the West, and Western ideas penetrated Russian circles
    • a.      Still, Russia outside framework of West: Renaissance, Reformation, geographic discoveries made little impact
    • b.      End of century: Peter the Great accelerated this process
  4. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Peter the Great
    • a.      Peter the Great
    •                                                               i.      Character: strong, coarse in tasts and rude in behavior, low humor
    •                                                             ii.      Viewed West on trip and returned to Russia set on westernizing his realm
    • 1.      Policy of Europeanization was technical
    • a.      Admired European technology and gadgets and wanted them in Russia
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Key to the army and navy needed to make Russia a great power
  5. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    First Priority
    •                                                               i.      First priority: reorganization of army and creation of navy
    • 1.      Employed Russians and Europeans as officers and conscripted peasants for 25 year stints of service for standing army of 210,000 men
    • 2.      Began forming first Russian Navy
  6. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power 
    Central Government
    • 1.      1711: created Senate to supervise administrative machinery of state during absence
    • a.      Senate became ruling council with inefficiencies, which caused Peter to use Western idea of “colleges,” or boards of administrators with different functions: foreign affairs, war, etc. 
  7. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    To impose rule
    • 1.      To impose rule of central government more effectively throughout land, he divided Russia, first, into 8, and in 1719, 50 provinces
    • 2.      Tried to create well-ordered community governed by law, few bureaucrats shared concept of honest service and duty to state
    • a.      Peter wanted civic duty, but his persona prevented it
  8. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Administrative aims
    • 1.      To further them, he demanded all members of landholding class to serve in military or civil offices
    • 2.      1722: institution of the Table of Ranks to create opportunities for nonnobles to serve the state and join the nobility
    • a.      All civil offices ranked according to 14 levels; a parallele list of fourteen grades was also created for all military offices
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Every official began at level one and worked up
    • 1.      Nonnoble reached eight= noble
    • Attempt at creating new nobility not continued 
  9. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Finance
    • 1.      Army and navy took 4/5 of state revenue; so, Peter adopted Western mercantilistic policies to stimulate economic growth
    • a.      Tried increasing exports and developing new industries, while exploiting domestic resources like iron mines in the Urals
    • b.      Military needs endlessà reliance on simply raising taxes,imposing more burdens on peasants, oppressing htem 
  10. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Religion
    • 1.      Tried to gain state control of Russian orthodox church
    • a.      11721: abolished position of patriarch and created body called the Holy Synod to make decisions for the church
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At head= procurator, layman who represented the interests of the tsar and assured Peter of effective domination of the church
  11. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    After return from West
    •                                                               i.      After return from West in 1698, he began introducing Western customs into Russia
    • 1.      Ordered prep of first Russian book of etiquette for manners
    • a.      Russian beards shaved; coats shortened
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Peter did this himself
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Barbers and tailors enforced edicts by doing this as well 
  12. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Women
    • 1.      Benefited greatly from Peter’s cultural reforms
    • a.      Seeing men and women mix in Western courts, he ended seclusion of upper-class Russian women and demanded removal of their veils that covered hteir faces
    • b.      Social gatherings held 3x a week in large houses of Saint Petersburg where men and women could mix for conversation, card games, and dancing
    • 2.      Allowed to marry on own free will 
  13. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Russia as Military Power
    •                                                               i.      Peter’s domestic reforms were to make Russia into great state and military power
    • 1.      Primary goal: oopen a port easily accessible to Europe, which could only be achieved on Baltic, which was controlled by Sweden, the most important oewr in n. Europe
    • a.      Wanted themà Peter, with support of Poland and Denmark, attacked Sweden in 1700 when the young king, Charles XII, ruled (presumed weak)
  14. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Charles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Charles= brilliantà smashed Danes, flattened Poles, and with well-disciplined force of 8000 men, routed the Russian army of 40,000 at the Battle of Narva (1700)à Great Northern War
    • 1.      Peter fought back
    • a.      Reorganized army along Western lines and at Battle of Poltava in 1709 defeated Charles’ army 
  15. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    War=12 more years
    • 1.      War= 12 more yearsà Peace of Nystadt gave formal recognition to what Peter achieved
    • a.      Acquisition of Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia
    • b.      Sweden second-rate Power and Russia now great European state
    • c.       Peter was building fine capital, beginning early in the war, when he constructed a new city, Saint Petersburg, his window on the West
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Construction cost thousands of peasant lives, but completed and remained Russian capital until 1917
  16. I.                   Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
    Summary
    •                                                               i.      Peter modernized and westernized Russiaà great military power, and by death, an important member of European state system
    •                                                             ii.      Policies detrimental to Russia
    • 1.      Westernization= sham
    • a.      Western culture only upper classes
    • b.      Real object of reforms, the creation of a strong military, added more burdens to masses of Russians
    •                                                           iii.      His force led to distrust of Europe and Western civilization
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ID
193639
Card Set
15.3.3
Description
State Building and the Search for Order in the 17th Century
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