Pediatric Development

  1. Development
    Sequential changes in the function of the individual
  2. Gestational age
    age of the fetus or newborn in weeks from first day of mother's last normal menstruation
  3. Conceptual age
    age of fetus or newborn in weeks since conception
  4. Prenatal sensory integration
    • responds to first tactile stimuli
    • reflex development
    • inate tactile, proprioceptive and vestib reactions
  5. Neonatal SI
    • tactile, propreoceptive and vesitbular inputs critical for development
    • vestibular helps to organize and calm infant
    • visual develops and reacts to high contrasts
    • auditory develops
  6. SI in first 6 months
    • integration of vestib, proprioceptive, visual
    • increased postural control
    • tactile and proprioceptive continue to lay foundational skills
    • movement patterns become more goal directed
  7. SI at age 6-12 months
    • Vestib, visual and somatosensory responses increase in quantity and quality
    • tactile and proprioceptive become more refined
    • Infant comes to midline and crosses midline
    • Auditory is hightened helping infant to prepare for communication
  8. SI 13-24 months
    • Tactile becomes more precise allowing for discrimination and localization
    • further integration of all systems
    • symbolic gesturing and vocalization
    • motor planning and mastering of environment
  9. SI 2-3 years
    • Preiod of refinement
    • Improved balance and postural control
    • Increased tactile discrimination and fine motor
    • Motor planning and praxis ideation
  10. SI 3 -7 yrs
    Child driven to challenge sensorimotor compentencies through play, games, music, dance, household chores and school
  11. Gross motor Skills age 0-2 months
    • turns head to side
    • lifts head momentarily
    • bends hips with bottom in air
    • rotates head freely when up
    • able to bear weight on forearms
    • able to tuck in chin
    • Attempts to shift weight on forearms
    • head held to one side
    • Able to turn head side to side
  12. Gross motor skill 5-6 months
    • Shifts weight on forearms
    • reaches forward
    • bears weight and shifts weight on extended arms
    • legs are closre togehter and thighs roll inward toward natural alignment
    • hips are flat on surface
    • equilibrium reactions are present
    • lifts head independently in supine
    • brings feet to mouth
    • brings hands to feet
    • able to reach for object w one or two hands
    • hands predominantly open
  13. Gross motor skill 5-8 months
    • Airplane posturing in prone position
    • chest and thighs lift off surface in pronbe
  14. Gross motor skill 7-8 months
    • Pivots in prone position
    • moves to prone position to sit
    • equillibrium reactions present
  15. Gross motor skill 3-4 months
    • holds head in midline
    • chin is tucked and neck lengthens in back
    • legs come together
    • lower back flattens against the floor
  16. Rolling Skills
    • 3-4 months- rolls from prone to side accidentally
    • - rolls supine to side
    • 5-6 months- rolls from prone to supine
    • - rolls supine to side with right and left leg moving independently
    • - rolls supine to prone with right and left leg moving independently
    • 6-14 months- rolls segmentally with roll initiatied by the head, shoulder or hips
  17. Creeping stages
    • 7 mo- Crawls forward on belly
    • 7-10 mo- Recipricol creep
    • 10-11 mo- creeps on hands and feet
    • 11-12 mo- creeps well
  18. General principles of motor development
    • occurs in a cephalocaudual / proximal to distal direction
    • progresses from gross to fine movement
    • progresses from stability to controlled mobility
    • occurs in a spiraling manner, with periods of equilibrium and disequilibrium
    • sensitive periods occur when the infant/ child is affected by environmental input
  19. Erik Erikson
    • Ego adaptation is the adaptive response of the ego in development of personality
    • - trust vs mistrust (birth to 18 months)
    • -Autonomy vs doubt (2-4 yrs)
    • - initiative vs guilt (preschool age)
    • - industry vs inferiority (elementary school )
    • - Self-identity vs role deffusion (teenage)
    • - Intimacy and solidarity vs isolation (young adulthood)
    • - Generativity vs. Self absorption (middle adulthood)
    • -Integrity vs. despair (maturity)
  20. Maslows hierarchy of basic human needs
    • Philosphpic: basic survival needs (food, rest, warmth)
    • Safety: the need for physical and physiologic security
    • Love and belonging: the need for affection, emotional support and group affiliation
    • Self esteem: the need to believe in one's self as a competent and valuable member of society
    • Slef actualization: the need to achieve one's personal goals, after attaining all of the psychosocial developmental milestones
Card Set
Pediatric Development
Milestones from birth through childhood (an occupational therapy perspective)