Human Development

  1. Social Cognition
    Thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives, and behaviors of self, other people, groups, and even whole systems
  2. False belief task
    Asses the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs, even though incorrect, can influence their behavior
  3. Theory of mind
    Understanding that people have mental states such as desires, beliefs, and intentions and that these mental states guide their behavior
  4. Belief-desire psychology
    They appreciate that people do what they do because they desire certain things and because they believe that certain actions will fulfill their desires.
  5. Desire psychology
    Age 2 when the theories of mind take shape. Toddlers talk about what they want and explain their own behavior and that of others in terms of wants and desires.
  6. Mirror neurons
    Neurons that are activated in both when they perform an action and when we observe someone perform the same action
  7. Role-taking skills
    The ability to adopt another persons' perspective and understand her thoughts and feelings in relation to your own.
  8. Morality
    • Involves the ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to experience pride when we do right things and guilt or shame when we do not.
    • 3 basic components:
    • 1. Affective
    • 2. Cognitive
    • 3. Behavioral
  9. Affective; morality
    Emotional, component consists of the feelings that surround right and wrong actions and that motivate moral thoughts and actions
  10. Cognitive; morality
    Centers on how we conceptualize right and wrong and make a decision about how to behave, drawing on social cognitive skills such as role taking
  11. Behavioral; morality
    Reflects how we behave when for example, we experience the temptation to cheat or are called upon to help a needy person
  12. Moral affect
    Emotion related to matters of right and wrong. Negative feelings as shame, guilt, anxiety, and fear of being detected- feeling that keep you from doing what you know is wrong.
  13. Empathy
    Vicarious experiencing of another person's feelings. Ex. smiling at others for their good fortune or experiencing their distress
  14. Prosocial behavior
    Positive social acts, such as helping or sharing, that reflect a concern for the welfare of others. Keeps us from doing harm to others
  15. Moral reasoning
    The thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
  16. Reciprocity
    Mutual give and take by both parties in a human relationship
  17. Piagets's Theory of Moral Development
    • Premoral period - during preschool years, children show little awareness or understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings.
    • Heteronomous - 6-10yrs take rules very seriously, believing that they are handed down by parents and other authority figures and are sacred and unalterable. They also judge rule violations as wrong based on the extent of damage done, not taking into account whether the violator had good or bad intentions.
    • Autonomous - age 10 or 11, appreciate rules are agreements between individuals- that can be changed through the consensus of those individuals. In judging actions, they pay more attention to whether that person's intentions were good or bad than to the consequences of the act
  18. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    • Level 1: Preconventional Morality
    • Stage 3: Punishment-and Obedience Orientation
    • Stage 4: Instrumental Hedonism
    • Level 2: Conventional Morality
    • Stage 1: "Good boy/girl" Morality
    • Stage 2: Authority and Social Order-Maintaining Morality
    • Level 3: Postconventional morality
    • Stage 5: Morality of Contract, Individual rights, and Democratically Accepted Law
    • Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience
  19. Kohlberg's Preconvetional Morality
    Rules that are external to the self rather than internalized. What is right is what one can get away with or what is personally satisfying.
  20. Kohlberg's Conventional Morality
    The individual has internalized many moral values. Perspectives of others are clearly recognized and given serious consideration.
  21. Kohlberg's Postconventional Morality
    The individual defines what is right in terms of broad principles of justice that have validity apart from the views of particular authority figures. Transcends the perspectives of particular social groups or authorities and begin to take the perspective of all individuals.
  22. Moral Disengagement
    Even though we know the difference between right and wrong, this allows us to avoid condemning ourselves when we engage in immoral behavior
  23. Amoral
    Lacking any sense of morality
  24. Mutually responsive orientation
    develops between the caregiver and child - when there is a close, emotionally positive, and cooperative relationship in which child and caregiver are attached to each other and are sensitive to each other's needs.
Card Set
Human Development
Social Cognition and Moral Development