Lesson 1-4

The flashcards below were created by user coondog100us on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen.
  2. Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the American pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse.
  3. Demographic studies have show that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non wine drinkers.
  4. At what blood alcohol concentration do most people perceive the maximum relaxation?
  5. Wine provides about how many calories per four oz serving?
  6. Although wine has a 4000 year history of therapeutic use, it is not considered useful in today's hospital setting.
  7. The people who should be most concerned about sulfites in wines are sulfite sensitive, steroid dependent asthmatics.
  8. Medical researchers define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four oz glasses of wine daily?
  9. The research by Dr. Keith Marton's showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non drinkers. (J curve)
  10. Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis.
  11. Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for the cardiovascular disease. 
  12. About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from FAS. 
    False, around 10%
  13. Why must women weigh more than one risk when considering whether to drink or not?
    Increased risk of breast cancer and possible effects on the fetus if they are pregnant. 
  14. Perception refers to an organism's immediate neurological response to a stimulus in teh environment.
    False, sensation does that.
  15. Sensory stimuli in wine are restricted to being either chemical or physical "activators".
    False, stimuli can also be thermal. 
  16. The smallest concentration of a wine component required for a taster to name it "By jove, that's sweet!" is called _____. 
    Recognition threshold
  17. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by weight" is about 1.2 grams per 100 mL, this wine taste would taste sweet to about _______?
    50% of people
  18. Winetasting focuses on a relatively narrow range of existing colors. 
    False, in winetasting, we take advantage of a large part of our capacity to distinguish a wide range of colors from yellow-greens to brick reds and purples. 
  19. Wine sensory components such as color, which evoke pleasure in and of themselves, are said to have a hedonic quality.
  20. What sensory quality would not be expected from the clue "A white wine is very pale and nearly colorless"? 
    Intense fruit aromas
  21. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with the total color and pigment content.
  22. Our appreciation of wines is mainly due to their odors.
  23. Flavors are actually odors or "in mouth smells" that reach our olfactory epithelium when we hold the wine in our mouths.
  24. The maximum sensitivity of our sense of smell has be estimated at one part per 10,000.
    False, its one part per million to several parts per trillion.
  25. It has been estimated that the average person can learn as many as 200 odors.
    False, we can learn about 1,000 odors. Wine has about 200 odors. 
  26. The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity and about 5-10% of the air reaches it in normal breathing. 
  27. What is the "retro-nasal route"?
    The passageway from the rear of the mouth and rear nasal passages to the olfactory epithelium. 
  28. We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate from the surface of a wine at the range of temperatures in which it is customarily served. 
  29. Which winetasting activity is not done to enhance a taster's ability to experience the wine's odors?
    Holding the wine against a white background.
  30. Winetasters may find that a wine's odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are experienced in the mouth as flavors than as odors entering the olfactory area in inhaled air.
  31. Which taste quality is very rare in wines?
  32. When is the mechanism of taste dependent on saliva?
    A solid substance must be dissolved in saliva to be tasted. Without saliva, we could only experience touch sensations with our mouths. 
  33. Where are the papillae located that have very few taste buds in them?
    On the tongue's top surface
  34. We should question the accuracy of the taste bud map of the tongue because we don't taste sweet, sour, bitter or salty in just one place. 
  35. At a gross level, we are most sensitive to which taste quality?
  36. What is not perceived in wine with your sense of touch?
  37. When the stimulus alcohol is present in high amounts in a wine, you can expect to experience both a taste and a tactile (touch) sensation, which are _______.
    Sweet and hot
  38. Adaptation is a chance in sensitivity that occurs in response to different levels of stimulation. Winetasters learn to work with olfactory adaptation by resting 15-45 seconds between sniffs when evaluation wines. 
  39. An example of taste adaptation is the fact that we are unaware of the taste of our own saliva.
  40. Refer to the label: William Hill 1989 Willamette Valley Oregon Dry White Riesling. How would you expect this wine to taste and smell to most people?
    Without perceptible sweetness and with an aroma that has an element that is like roses.
  41. PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramatically people can vary in their ability to taste something bitter and it accurately predicts a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines. 
  42. Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person's ability to smell all odors, and the term "specific anosmia" is used when someone cannot detect a particular scent, but otherwise has a normal sense of smell.
  43. The "orange juice effect" is an example of _____.
    A taste modifier
  44. You just served 2 glasses of De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest to a friend. One glass is colder and the other is warmed. When she tastes them the warmer wine will seem _________.
  45. The National Geographic Smell Survey found that olfactory sensitivity is reduced during pregnancy and that odor perception declines during aging.
  46. Women are more able to learn to identify odors than men.
  47. Blind tastings, in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code, are designed to eliminate stimulus errors, which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.
  48. Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by giving the odor a verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definitions.
    False, it enhances our ability to recall its name.
  49. The wine aroma wheel was designed to enhance the accuracy of communication about wine odors among members of the wine industry.
  50. When judging the appearance of wines, the taster evaluates their _______.
  51. The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker the streams produced when the wine falls back down the side of the glass after it is swirled.
    False, the streams are thinner.
  52. In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle-aged too long.
  53. Within the normal color range for white table wines, darker colors are associated with oak barrel aging and/or later harvests.
  54. Among red wines, a purple hue is associated with older, bottle-aged wines, and the brick red hue is characteristic of young wines.
    False, purple wines are younger and get more brick red with age.
  55. Because their detection and prevention is of central concern to winemakers, a very large number of off odors have been linked to particular diagnostic chemicals such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate, which can be found by laboratory as well as sensory analysis.
  56. In wine usage, _____ refers to the odors that come from the grape, and ______ bouquet is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.
    Aroma, bouquet
  57. For a wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires a particular grape variety, proper growing conditions, and careful winemaking.
  58. The term "flavor components" is used for the chemicals responsible for a wine's taste and tactile sensations.
    False, the correct term is "structural components"
  59. A wine wish inadequate body would be correctly described as flat.
    False, it would be described as thin
  60. What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?
  61. Your are tasting 2 White Riesling wines. They are identical except for sugar content. Wine A has 3X as much sugar as Wine B. When you taste the 2 wines, you expect Wine A to have more body than Wine B.
  62. Great wines are distinguished from ordinary  wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.
  63. Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tasting and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.
  64. The glasses for wine tastings are not _______.
  65. This group of wines is served at the coldest temperature, both in the restaurant and tasting laboratory.
    Sparkling and sweet white
  66. Which tasting order would place the second wine at a disadvantage?
    Sweet before dry
  67. To inspect a wine for color, hold it up to a bright source of light such as a clear light bulb or a candle.
    False, hold it up to a white background.
  68. Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wine by swirling the wine in the glass 6 or 8 revolutions, and putting their noses into the glass by taking 4 or 5 quick, deep sniffs.
    False, winetasters begin the olfactory stage by sniffing without swirling, and in the 2nd stage they swirl the wine 1-2 revolutions and sniff 2-3 times.
  69. Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine, and the tactile receptors in their mouths can sense its sweetness and tartness. 
    False, winetasters "chew" the wine so that all of their taste buds come into contact with it.
  70. A winetaster who is evaluating the quality of wine will take time to notice, among other things, if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individualized parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
  71. Table wines are also referred to as natural wines and contain 14% alcohol or less.
  72. A clone is a subgroup of a grape species and is distinguished from other clones by economically important hereditary traits such as its climatic adaptation.
    False, the correct term is "grape variety". Clones are "sub-varieties".
  73. Varietal wines are made mainly from a single variety of grapes that should impart a characteristic aroma and flavor to the wine.
  74. The wine type refers to a winemaker's characteristic way of combining and balancing the sensory features that distinguish a particular wine to create an individualistic expression of that wine. 
    False, the correct term is "wine style".
  75. You would expect a warmer glass of wine to have more intense aromas compared to a colder glass of the same wine.
Card Set
Lesson 1-4
HB 409 Final Exam Review Questions
Show Answers