1. Four main groups of protozoans
    • 1. Apicomplexan (Sporozoa): Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii
    • 2. Mastigophora (Flagellates): Trypanosoma spp., Giardia lamblia
    • 3. Sarcodina (Ameboid): Entamoeba histolytica, Naegleria fowleri
    • 4. Ciliophora (Ciliates): Balantidium coli
  2. Malaria symptoms
    • Fever, chills, sweats, body aches and general malaise. Enlargement of spleen and the liver.
    • Progression of the disease resulted in severe anemia, seizures and acute respiratory failure.
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  4. Estimated amount at risk for malaria
    3.3 billiion
  5. Malaria, number of clinical cases in 2010 and deaths?
    216 million clinical cases occurred in 2010, with 655,000 deaths.
  6. Malaria, What percent of deaths occurred in Africa?  What percent of deaths global are children?
    91% of deaths occurred in Africa and 86% percent of global deaths caused by malaria are children.
  7. 4 Plasmodium species mainly responsible for human infection:
    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Plasmodium vivax
    • Plasmodium ovale
    • Plasmodium malariae
  8. Which plasmodium causes the most severe infections and is responsible for almost all malaria deaths.
    Plasmodium falciparum
  9. where is malaria distributed
    • Africa,
    • Asia
    • Central America
  10. Life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum
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    Life cycle of P. falciparum. The sporozoites discharged from the salivary glands of the mosquito develop in the liver cells (the hepatocytes) first as schizonts which transform and discharge merozoites into the bloodstream. The liver stage is also called the exoerythocytic (or pre-erythrocytic) stage of infection. Merozoites infect the red blood cells where they develop into trophozoites, schizonts and merozoites which are capable of reinfecting other erythrocytes. This stage of the infection is also called the erythrocytic cycle. The destruction of the red blood cells and the release of the parasites' waste products produce the episodic chills and fever that characterize the disease. Some merozoites from the blood transform into gametocytes which, when taken by the mosquito, initiate sexual development in the midgut, involving ookinetes and oocysts.
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    female, male and oocysts Malaria
  12. African Trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness) symptoms
    • Symptoms and physical findings: Fever, headaches, muscle aches and joint pain. Enlarged lymph nodes and a chancre were noted.
    • Progression of the disease resulted in reversal of the sleep rhythm and non-specific neurological symptoms.
  13. Number of people at risk of African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping sickness)
    Estimated 70 million people
  14. # of cases reported of African Trypanosomiasis in 2010
    There were 7139 new cases reported in 2010, the actual number of cases is estimated to be approximately 30,000.
  15. African Trypanosomiasis is caused by
    • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense¬†
    • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  16. Which African Trypanosomiasis progresses slowly and which is rapid.
    T.b. rhodesiense (east) infection progresses rapidly and kills in months, while T.b. gambiense (west) infection is slower and can take years.
  17. Where is African Trypanosomiasis distributed?
    • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense East Africa
    • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense West Africa
  18. African Trypanosomiasis spread by
    Tsetse fly
  19. Life cycle of African Trypanosomiasis
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    African Trypanosomiasis
  21. Giardiasis symptoms
    Diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea. (backpacking in Maine)
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  23. Giardiasis is found
  24. What is the prevalence rate of Giardiasis
    prevelance rate of 20-30% in undeveloped countries and 2-7% in developed ones
  25. How many cases a year are there of Giardiasis?
    There are an estimated 2.5 million cases annually.
  26. Giardiasis is caused by
    intestinal protozoan Giardia lamblia.
  27. What is the life cycle of Giardia lamblia
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    Giardia lamblia
Card Set
Protozoan pests