# GEOG3810.txt

 The fundamental research methods procedure. 5 parts Develop your hypothesisData collectionSelection of analysis methodsDraw ConclusionsReport Findings Data is single or plural False. Data is always plural. Always do a _______ and inferential analysis when selecting analysis methods descriptive Define Data for statistical analysis Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis How do you describe an individual 'piece' of data? Each piece of data is an element under study. Data is made up of a number of observations. What is 'population'? in research? the total 'set' of things under investigation. What is a sample? What does it represent? A random selection from a population, meant to represent the total population. What is sampling error? A sample that is not representative of the total population. Give an example of sampling error. Population is entire class height average. Sample only the tallest members of the class. Results skewed. What is non-sampling error? 5 parts human errorbias with participantsusing wronginstrument to acquire infono response set in survey What is the difference between a statistic and a census? Statistic a value you get from the sample.Census is acquiring information from the entire population. What is a descriptive statistic, give example? A measure that will describe the data, i.e. mean, standard deviation etc. What is an inferential statistic? A conclusion drawn from the sample about your population. Give an example of a constant variable. Quantitiy or factor that doesn’t change betweensamples, objects, data sets. I.E. speed of light Give an example of a variable in quantitative and qualitative. Hair colour, temperature Define quantitative (2 pt). What kinds of quantitative? (2 pt.) Something that can be measured in numbersthose numbers have DEFINITE meaning Discreet or continuous. Define discreet. Whole number. Fixed set of possible outcomes Define continuous Variables that can take any value within a range.  Give an example of a discreet and a continuous variable Rainfall in March. The number of immigrants in Canada in 1987. What are the four levels of measurement? Nominal ScaleOrdinal dataIntervalRatio Define nominal scale It has numbers, but they have no meaning. They cannot be used in mathematics. I.E. Giving a province a number. Hair colour. Can't be ranked. Define ordinal data data can be ranked, but you CANNOT do math with it.You can reduce ordinal data to nominal. Define interval data Data has definite meaning. You can do math with itInterval has a relative zero and therefor can be in the negatives. Define ratio data Data has a definite meaning. You can do math with it. Data has a DEFINITE zero can cannot have negatives. Define Percision and Accuracy.  PercisionHow often you can get a valueafter repeating the measurement a number of times. AccuracyHow close you are to the actualvalue. Measure of the extent of system wide bias in your measurement. What are the four decisions you must make for research design? What information will you generate? NEED WELL DEFINED HYPOTHESIS Methods of Data Collection Coverage of Data How to analyze the data What is the central goal of sampling? To derive a truly representative set of values from a population What steps are there to define a sampling survey? (7)    State objectives of the survey(hypothesis must explicitly state). ·     Define target population. ·     Define data to be collected ·     Define the required precisionand accuracy. This will help to define the sample size. Define the measurementinstrument. (survey, observation? How does that work? What’s the best way ofdoing it?) ·     Define the sample frame, samplesize, sample method, then select theactual sample. What quality should a sample size have? sample size the minimum sample you should obtain for your study What are the advantages of sampling over a census? (4 pts). Efficient and cost effectiveCan get more details from samplehigh detailed informationhigh detailed accuracy What are disadvantages to sampling? What would these examples be called? Systematic bias  ·     Selecting improper samplingdesign (are the variablesappropriate or not? Are they the best way of achieving the end goal?) ·     Method of data collection maybe inappropriate  Inconsistences in operational,logistic or personelle   Define sampling error The amount of error you contain in your sample. Define imprecision in sampling Imprecision means that your example is not representative of your population The larger the _____, the closer to the _____ you become and there will be lower _____. N, census, impercision In sampling you want to find the sample size where you balance _____ and ______ effort, impercision Finish these sentences: Who do you want to generalize to? What population can you get access to?  How can you get access to them? Who is in your study? Theoretical populationStudy PopulationSampling FrameThe Sample Define target population: Target population-complete set of individuals from which information is to be collected Define target area. Target area – entire region or set of location from which information is to be collected Target Area: There are _____ wrong ways of defining it. There are _____ right ways of defining it.  Many, no How do you create a sampling frame? Define the target population into sampling units.Create a finite list of sampling units that make up the target population What is the implication if a sample frame is incorrectly defined? It will be unrepresentative of the target population. What ways can a sample frame be inaccurate? (3) contains too many individualscontains too few individualscontains the wrong individuals What are two inherent problems with sampling frame? Can't sample from mobile populationsStatistical population not known When can you not use probability methods? When it is on humans.  Define non-probability methods. How is it made to be representative? Cannot specify a probability for selection. People can refuse. Trees cannot.Researcher uses expertise to ensure representative sample. What are three types of non-probability sampling? ConveniencePurposiveQuota What are three problems with non-probability sampling? May fail to secure representative sampleMethod may make framework more difficultValid inferences can't be made to larger pop'n. You can't assign probability to the sampling frame. Define probability sampling Every unit has an equal chance of being selected. How do you systematically sample? Select an r randomly, and then select a k interval.  What is a stratified sample and when is it used? You have two or more sub-populations with important yet different features (i.e. eye correction vs. none). Split up both groups and then reassign probabilities to each group. Define proportional stratified sample Each group has equal probabilities (equal numbers). Define disproportional sampling Each group has different probabilities (and therefor different proportions)  Define cluster/area sampling an appropriate number of categories is selected for detailed analysis through random sampling i.e. 9 neighbourhoods in town, randomly sample 2. When would you use spatial sampling? When you have a map and continuously distributed variable across this map How do you randomly select for spatial sampling? Must randomly select X and Y. Give an example of systematically spatial sampling Pick an X and Y point, then a distance between each sample, and randomly select a repetition. It will result in an orderly sequence of sample plots. Give an example of stratefied point sample Randomly break up the map into a quadrant and then select points within each quadrant randomly Authormytie5 ID193477 Card SetGEOG3810.txt Descriptionflash cards for quantitative research analysis Updated2013-01-22T04:49:28Z Show Answers