the branch of science concerned with the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems:
the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms:
when you define the properties of a cell, you are in fact defining:
the properties of life
the activity of an organism is dependent on:
both the individual and collective activities of its cells
according to _________________, the biochemical activities of cells are
determined and made possible by the specific subcellular structures of cells.
the principle of complementarity
the continuity of life has a ____________ basis.
smallest unit of protoplasm capable of independent existence:
groups of cells with the same function:
groups of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function:
group of organs that work together to perform a common function:
systems grouped together:
any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon:
give four examples of organic compounds:
basic building blocks of cells:
give the components of protein, and some examples:
components: amino acids
examples: insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, enzymes
provide energy necessary for cellular functions:
give the components of carbohydrates, and some examples:
components: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
examples: starch, glycogen, lactose, sucrose
direct cellular activities & transmit genetic information between cells and generations:
nucleic acid (DNA)
give the components of nucleic acid (DNA):
plays a role in protein synthesis:
nucleic acid (RNA)
give the components of nucleic acid (RNA):
RNA is made up of everything that makes up DNA except:
its functions are various: store energy, protection, etc.
give the components of lipids, and some examples:
components: differs with type
examples: cholesterol, castor oil, steroids (vitamin D, sex hormones, etc)
a small, watery, compartment filled with chemicals and a complete copy of the organism's genome:
name the two major sections that make up a cell's structure:
All metabolic functions in the cell occur in the:
_________ means "building up," while _________ means "breaking down."
the part of the cell that contains genetic information and directs all cellular functions:
specialized structures within the cell performing specific functions:
be familiar with the major organelles (12):
5. rough endoplasmic reticulum
6. golgi apparatus
8. smooth endoplasmic reliculum
located in the cytoplasm and monitors exchanges between cell and environment:
located in the cytoplasm, plays a part in protein synthesis and is dotted with ribosomes:
rough endoplasmic reticulum
located in the cytoplasm and plays a part in the synthesis of substances other than protein:
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
located in the cytoplasm & the nucleus and controls protein:
RNA is a chemical similar to:
a single strand of DNA
in RNA, the letter ____, which stands for _______, is substituted for the letter ____, in the genetic code.
delivers DNA's genetic message to the cytoplasm of a cell:
the three types of RNA:
mRNA (messenger RNA)
tRNA (transfer RNA)
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
carries a code from DNA to a ribosome where it is transferred to tRNA:
searches the cytoplasm for the amino acid for which it is coded, then attaches to the amino acid and carries it to the ribosome for protein synthesis:
template for protein synthesis:
specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids that comprise the protein:
each set of three bases of mRNA, called codons
the only RNA that can go back and forth between nucleus and cytoplasm is the:
the sequence of a strand of mRNA is based on:
the sequence of a complementary strand of DNA
located in the cytoplasm and plays a part in protein synthesis:
ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis which is where:
RNA is translated into protein
due to the demand of protein synthesis, ribosomes can number:
in the hundreds or thousands
in what two states do ribosomes exist in the cell (location):
floating freely in the cytoplasm
bound to the endoplasmic reticulum
located in the cytoplasm, the sites of aerobic respiration, and generally are the major energy production centers of the cell:
produce energy by oxidizing carbohydrates & lipids:
a vital protein that encourages a biochemical reaction, usually speeding it up:
what two items compete to bind with enzymes?
what needs to bind with an enzyme for a reaction to occur?
(if an inhibitor binds instead, inhibition occurs)
located in the cytoplasm and contains enzymes capable of breaking down proteins & carbohydrates, and destroying the cell:
located in the cytoplasm and controls the concentration & segregation of products for secretion; carbohydrate synthesis:
located in the nucleus and controls the separation of nucleus & cytoplasm; permits
selective passage of molecules from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa:
located in the nucleus and contains most of the RNA:
located in the nucleus and directs all cellular activity (reproduction, metabolism, etc.); contains genetic information in code form:
what is the structure of DNA?
a double helix
(looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil)
what makes up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder?
the four nitrogenous bases:
purines: adenine and guanine
pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine
describe how the nitrogenous bases of DNA are paired:
adenine always pairs with thymine
guanine always pairs with cytosine
the order of bases in a segment are called:
The sides of the DNA ladder are formed by:
and the rungs:
sides: a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecule
rungs: nucleotide bases joined weakly in the middle by hydrogen bonds
the rungs of the DNA ladder are bases that bond to each other through ___________ and to ____________ on the side rails.
one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA:
what does a nucleotide consist of?
a base, plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid
(the base is one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine)
the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring:
located in the nucleus and directs cellular activities; contains DNA:
pieces of DNA, and most contain the information for making a specific protein:
one of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell:
located in the nucleus and directs cellular activities; contains genes:
different kinds of organisms have different numbers of:
the number of chromosomes in somatic cells:
in humans, the diploid number is:
describe the distribution of the chromosomes in human somatic cells:
23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all
44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes
each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers
the number of chromosomes in a sperm or egg cell:
(half the diploid)
refers to the number of chromosomes in a normal somatic cell for a given species:
diploid number (2n)
refers to the number of chromosomes in a normal germ cell for a specific species:
haploid number (n)
the process by which the DNA double helix unwinds and makes an exact copy of itself:
be familiar with the process of DNA replication:
1. parent DNA molecule; two complementary strands of base-paired nucleotides
2. Parental strands unwind and separate at several points along the DNA molecule, forming replication forks
3. Each parental strand provides a template that attracts and binds complementary bases, A with T and G with C
4.Sugar-phosphate backbone of daughter strands closed. Each new DNA molecule consists of one daughter strand, as a result of semiconservative replication
name the two types of cellular division:
Process of somatic cellular reproduction whereby one parent cell divides to form two daughter cells with the same chromosome number and DNA content as the original parent cell:
all body cells with the exception of reproductive cells:
death of the cell:
in general, cells are most radiosensitive in _______________ and most resistant in ______________.
late M and G2 phases
late S phase
in which phase of the cell cycle do many cancer drugs like taxol act, freezing the process and causing apoptosis?
when is the cell cycle of G1 begun?
when the cell senses growth signals or mitogens, starting the process of cell division
what occurs after 8-10 hours into the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
the cell crosses a restriction point that acts are the point of no return...the cell is committed to divide or die
at what point of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized?
(many cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs act here to disrupt DNA synthesis)
at what point of the cell cycle does the cell arrange and check chromosomes?
how many checkpoints are there in the cell cycle?
G1 restriction point
G2/M major checkpoint
M major spindle checkpoint
four key parts of prophase:
chromatin becomes filamentous and visible
chromatids become attached at the centromere
chromosomes are visible
spindle fibers appear
three key parts of metaphase:
nucleolus and nuclear membrane have disappeared
spindle fibers attach to each chromatid
chromatids align on the equatorial plate
three key parts of anaphase:
centromeres break apart
chromosomes move away from center of cell
three key parts of telophase:
the nuclear membrane and both nuclei appear
the cytoplasm and organelles divide equally
the process of cell division is complete
list the order of the four stages of mitosis:
a process by which the genome of a diploid germ cell, which is composed of long segments of DNA packaged into chromosomes, undergoes DNA replication followed by two rounds of division, resulting in four haploid cells:
if meiosis produces gametes, these cells must ___________________________ before any new growth can occur.
fuse during fertilization to create a new diploid cell, or zygote
each of the four haploid cells resulting from the process of meiosis contains:
one complete set of chromosomes, or half of the genetic content of the original cell
a mature reproductive cell capable of function in fertilization or conjugation:
gamete/germ cell/genetic cell
the female germ cell:
the male germ cell:
meiosis II does not include:
the final result of meiosis II is:
23 chromosomes in each cell, allowing for 23 of each sex after fertilization is complete
suggest looking over this chart:
also, may wanna watch the youtube videos in the powerpoint. they're not included in this set of cards.
who invented the diode tube with a partial vacuum (which roentgen was using when he discovered x-ray)?
who produced the first radiograph without knowing what caused a shadow of coins on a photographic plate?
author willis goodspeed (1890)
who discovered x-rays?
wilhelm conrad roentgen (1895)
who found that uranium emitted rays that passed through paper and darkened photographic film?
henri becquerel (1896)
who announced the discovery of radium, which also emitted penetrating rays, and applied the term radioactivity to the behavior of these materials?
marie and pierre curie (1898)
who noticed a skin reaction (reddening and irritation) induced by radium he had been carrying in a tube in his vest pocket?
henri becquerel (soon after 1898)
who deliberately exposed a small area of skin to radium and observed the effects?
pierre curie (soon after 1898)
who began experimental radiobiology by exposing rabbits' testes to x-rays and documenting effects?
j. bergonie and l. tribondeau (1904)
the radiosensitivity of cells is directly proportional to their reproductive activity (proliferation rate) and inversely proportional to their differentiation:
law of bergonie and tribondeau (1906)
who laid the groundwork for modern radiotherapy by placing the principle of fractionation on a firm clinical basis?
henri coutard (1932)
who invented the cyclotron, a machine capable of accelerating charged particles to very high speeds which were used as bullets and shot into the nuclei of target atoms to study nuclear structure (used today to produce radionuclides for nuclear medicine applications)?
e.o. lawrence (1932)
who studied indirect effects of ionizing radiation in 1936?
who studied indirect effects of ionizing radiation in 1947?
who discovered that oxygen increases the effects of ionizing radiation on living matter (oxygen effect)?
thoday and read (1947)
who studied both indirect effect and oxygen effect of radiation?
l.h. gray (1953)
who produced the first successful culture of mammalian cells in artificial media (hela cells) and exposed these cells to radiation in vitro and plotted cell survival curves?
puck and associates (1956)
who showed that cells can sometimes recover from sublethal doses of radiation?