is a louse belonging to the suborder Anoplura, known as the sucking lice.
Anthelmintic (or antihelmintic)
is a remedy used to reduce the number of helminths in animals or humans. Similarly there are insecticides, acaricides and antiprotozoal remedies.
is a tick of the family Argasidae, known as soft ticks because they do not have large areas of hardened plates on the body, they are very tough despite the name.
Gametogony (or sporogony)
is the sexual phase of reproduction in the Protozoa.
is a tick in the family Ixodidae; known as hard because of the hard scutum (shield) on the dorsal surface.
Definitive or final host
is the host which harbors the adult or sexual stage of the parasite (e.g. hookworms in the small intestine).
is the host in which a larval or immature stage of the helminth parasite develops before becoming infective to the final or definitive host (e.g. herbivores for cestodes).
Paratenic or transport host
is the host in which larval stages of a helminth parasite do not develop further (e.g. ascarids). These larval stages may develop further if ingested by another host.
is the term used when endoparasites invade internal tissues of the host.
is the term used when ectoparasites attach to or occupy the host.
refers to a louse in the suborder Ischnocera, chewing lice such as Damalinia on mammals and Goniodes on birds.
is a tick in the family Ixodidae, known as the hard ticks because they have a hardened plate or shield, the scutum, on the dorsal surface.
refer to any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part.
Life cycle or life history
refers to all stages of development of the parasite through its various forms or stages.
or roundworms are cylindrical and tapering at both ends. They exhibit a wide range of shapes but are typically elongate and round in transverse section.
is an organism (animal, plant, microbe) that lives on or in another organism (host) at the expense of the latter.
Endoparasite is a parasite, which invades internal tissues of the host.
Ectoparasite is a parasite, which attaches to or occupies the host.
is a poison that is more toxic to parasites than their hosts. The aim is to reduce the level of parasites to where it is unlikely to cause disease or production losses, which are economically unacceptable. These include anthelmintics, insecticides, acaricides and antiprotozoal remedies.
is the preferred site in or on the host characteristic for a parasite species.
Prepatent period (PPP)
is the time taken for development from infection until the mature adult parasites are producing eggs, larvae or other stages, which perpetuate the life cycle.
are unicellular, eukaryotic organisms which belong to the Animal Kingdom in that they obtain their energy by the intake of organic material.
Schizogony (or merogony)
is asexual reproduction in the subphylum Sporozoa of the Protozoa as compared with gametogony (sporogony).
is a tick of the family Argasidae, known as soft ticks because they do not have a hard scutum and are often able to survive harsher conditions than hard ticks.
is the sclerotized plate on the dorsal surface of ixodid ticks and some mites, often known as the dorsal shield, it is large in males, smaller and anterior in position in females; argasid ticks do not have a scutum.
is when a pathogenic organism passes from one host to another host through or on an arthropod. The arthropod is said to transmit the organism; such an arthropod is a vector. If the pathogen has essential development within the vector the transmission is called biological, if the pathogen is simply transferred on the mouthparts the transmission is called mechanical.
is when the infection persists from one stage to the next, such as; in 2- or 3-host ticks feeding on different hosts (e.g. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a 3-host tick which transmits Babesia spp. Infection persists from one stage to the next, and therefore transmission is said to be transtadial).
is when the infection is transmitted by stages from generation to generation of ticks (e.g. Babesia spp are transmitted via the tick egg from one generation to the next).
is an animal, often an arthropod, which transmits a pathogenic organism from one host in which disease may occur to another host.
transmits infective organisms directly (and promptly) to a recipient host without development or multiplication of the organisms having occurred.
is one in which the infective organisms either undergo development or multiply, or do both before being transmitted to the recipient host.