Reversible brain changes & sex changes (may decrease motivation and v testosterone/estrogen levels)
Causes emphysema quicker than smoking
Contains 60 toxins
Other illegal drugs? See yellow highlights in handout saved in Mental Health folder.
What is the CAGE assessment?
Cut down ("have you ever tried?")
Annoyed with others
Eye-opener ("Do you need one?")
What are some assessments for alcohol detox?
**Vital signs-- BP & pulse elevates because of autonomic rebound and CIWA used to track withdrawal symptoms
Check labs: CBC, H&H, platelets; K+, Ca+, Mg+, GGT (liver enzyme. If elevated pt has been drinking heavily over time.)
Assess for DTs (want to know when last drink was) and seizures. Get on Benzos to prevent.
Why would you give laculose for an alcohol abuser?
Retains ammonia in colon (decreases blood ammonia concentration) by producing osmotic effects and promotes increased peristalsis and bowel evacuation.--> really bad diarrhea. Prevents ammonia build up in brain which is the cause of confusion for pt with liver damage.
What are some typical orders for alcohol withdrawal?
Vitals at least q4h
Ecotrin (for headaches)
What are some interventions for alcohol rehab phase?
Owns substance problem
Attends aftercare meetings, AA, ALANON for spouse
*Is alcohol free
Plans sober leisure activities
*Accepts responsibility for own behavior
Changes faulty thinking
Deals with feelings
Uses healthy coping mechanisms
Nursing interventions for substance abuse pts?
(To get free of substance)
Establish a 1:1 trusting relationship
Assess the level of denial
Assist patient in grieving loss of substances
Identify triggers to using
Explore healthy coping skills
Assist to find alternative ways to deal with life without substances
Help patient accept responsibility for own behavior
Assess guilt and assist with making amends
Confront unhealthy thoughts and behavior
Set limits on behavior
Help deal with feelings
Instruct about critical periods
3, 6, 9, 12 months, 1.5 and 3 years (may have vivid dreams about using the substance)
HALT [Hungry, angry, lonely & tired]
Assist with problem-solving
Teach social skills as needed
Learn new and proper ways in dealing with members of the opposite sex