Genetics 1-15 ECU

  1. Genetics:
    the branch of biology that deals with heredity and the expression of inherited traits
  2. Termed "genetics"
  3. Anthropology: 
    “Ancient DNA reveals Neandertals with red hair, fair complexions”
  4. central dogma
  5. Molecular genetics: 
    How is genetic information encoded?  Chemical nature of gene, transcription of DNA to RNA, translation of RNA to protein, regulation of gene expression
  6. Transmission or classical genetics:
    How can we describe and explain the transmission of traits from from one generation to the next?   Study of cell division, chromosomes, whole organisms
  7. Population genetics:
    How and why does the genetic makeup of populations change through time?
  8. proteins are coded by --------- and made of --------------
    amino acids
  9. Ribosomal RNA
    creates machinery where translation occurs
  10. messenger RNA
    provides protein-coding sequence for translation
  11. transfer RNA
    carry amino acids to ribosome, translate codon into amino acids
  12. Proteins are
    biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides.
  13. A polypeptide is a
    single linear polymer of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds.
  14. Nucleic acid is a
    polymer made up of    nucleotides
  15. DNA:
    Double helix of anti-parallel strands held together with hydrogen bonds
  16. RNA
    Single strand
  17. Each nucleotide composed of:               
    1. phosphate group                                            2. nitrogenous base                3. pentose sugar
  18. 1Carbon
    Covalent bond to nitrogenous base
  19. 2Carbon
    Distinguishes DNA and RNA
  20. 3Carbon
    Covalent bond to phosphate group
  21. 5Carbon
    Covalent bond to phosphate group
  22. ribose vs deoxyribose
    H 2carbone vs OH 2 Carbon
  23. Purines       
    Guanine        Adenine
  24. Pyrimidines       
    • Cytosine                
    • Thymine    DNA only        
    • Uracil        RNA only
  25. nitrogenous bases
    • deoxyadenosine
    • deoxyguanosine
    • cytidine
    • thymidine
    • uridine
  26. Nitrobase+sugar+phosphate group nucleotide
    • deoxyadenosine-monophosphate
    • dAMP
  27. How does RNA differ from DNA?
    Ribose instead of deoxyribose      (2’ Carbon has hydroxyl group)
  28. Purine (two rings) to
    pyrimidine (one ring)
  29. A (purine) to
    T (pyrimidine) – two bonds
  30. G (purine) to
    C (pyrimidine) – three bonds
Card Set
Genetics 1-15 ECU
Genetics 1-15 ECU