A&P Medic 14 Chapter 1

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  1. Basic functions of living things
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Movement
    • Metabolism
  2. Gross Anatomy (macroscopic)
    Considers features visible to the unaided eye.
  3. Surface anatomy
    General form and superficial markings.
  4. Regional anatomy
    Considers al of the superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body, such as the head, neck or trunk.
  5. Systemic anatomy
    Considers the structure of the major organ systems, which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner.
  6. Microscopic anatomy
    Concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
  7. Ranges of Microscopic anatomy
    • Cytology
    • Histology
  8. Cytology
    analyzes the internal structure of individual cells.
  9. Histology
    Examines tissues.
  10. Physiology
    study of functions 
  11. Cell physiology
    • Study of the functions of living cells.
    • Chemical/Molecular
    • Within cells and between cells.
  12. Special physiology
    physiology of specific organs.
  13. Pathology
    Study of diseases on organ or system functions.
  14. Levels of organization (small to large)
    • Chemical(molecular)
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Organism
  15. Organ systems
    • integumentary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
    • respiratory
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • reproductive
  16. Homeostasis
    Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment.
  17. Homeostatic regulation
    Refers to adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostatis.
  18. Homeostatic regulation involves?
    • Receptor
    • Control center
    • Effector
  19. Homeostatic receptor
    is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus
  20. Homeostatic Control center ( integration center)
    Receives and processes information from the receptor.
  21. Homeostatic effector
    responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity opposes or reinforces activity.
  22. Negative Feedback
    A variation outside the normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
  23. Positive feedback
    The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus.
  24. Integumentary system

    Protects against environmental hazards; helps control body temperature

    • Cutaneous membrane: Dermis and epidermis
    • Hair follicles: hairs and sebaceous glands 
    • Sweat glands
    • Nails
    • Sensory receptors
    • Subcutaneous layer
  25. Skeletal System

    Provides support; protects tissues;stores minerals;forms blood.

    • Bones,Cartilages, and Joints
    • Appendicular skeleton
    • Bone marrow
  26. Muscular system

    Alows for locomotion;provides support;produces heat.

    • Skeletal muscles
    • axial muscles
    • appendicular muscles
    • tendons
  27. Nervous system

    • Directs immediate response to stimuli;usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
    • Central nervous system
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system
  28. Endocrine system

    Directs long-term change in activites of other organ systems.

    • Pineal gland
    • Pituitary gland
    • Thyroid gland
    • Parathyroid gland
    • Thymus
    • Adrenal Glands
    • Kidneys
    • Pancreas
    • Gonads: Testes and Ovaries
  29. Cardiovascular system

    Transports cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes and gases.

    • Heart
    • Blood vessels:Arteries, capillaries, and veins.
    • Blood
  30. Lyphhatic system

    Defends against infection and disease; returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream.

    • Lymphatic vessels 
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • thymus
  31. Respiratory System

    Delivers air to sides where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.

    • Nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
    • Alveoli
  32. Digestive System

    Organ/ Component
    Processes food and absorbs nutrients.

    • Salivary glands
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • liver
    • gall bladder
    • pancreas
    • large intestine
  33. Urinary system

    Eliminates excess waster, salts and waste products.

    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  34. Transverse palne
    right angles to the long (head to foot)axis of the body and divides the body into superior and inferior protions
  35. Frontal Plane (Coronal Plane)
    runs along the long axis of the body. The frontal plane extents lateraly(side to side), and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
  36. Sagittal plane
    Divides left and right protions 
  37. Anterior
  38. Ventral
    Belly side(equal to anterior when referring to the human body)
  39. Posterior
    The back:Behind
  40. Dorsal
    The back(when referring to the human body)
  41. Cranial or cephalic
  42. Superior
    Above; at a higher level (to the head in the body)
  43. Caudal
    The tail(coccyx in humans)
  44. Inferior
    Below: lower level
  45. Medial
    Towards the body's longitudinal axis
  46. Lateral
    Away from the body's longitudinal axis
  47. Distal
    Away from the attached base
  48. Proximal
    Toward an attached base
  49. Superficial
    At,near, or relatively close to the body surface.
  50. Deep
    Farther from the body surface
  51. Ventral body cavity (coelom) 
    • Thoratic cavity
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
  52. Throacic cavity 

    Internal chambers
    • 1 Pericardial cavity
    • 2 plural cavities
  53. Mediastinum
    Connective tissue surrounds the paricardial cavity and heart, large arteries and veins attached to the heart, and the thymus, trachea, and esophagus.
  54. Paracardium
    Outside to in
    • Parietal pericardium
    • Pericardial cavity
    • Viseral pericardium
  55. Viscera
    Internal organs within the thoratic and abdminopelvic cavities
  56. visceral layewr
    portion of serous membrane that covers a visceral organ.
  57. Parietal layer
    seruous membrane that the inner surface of the body wall or chamber
  58. pleura
    serous membrane that lines a pleural cavity
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A&P Medic 14 Chapter 1
Ch 1
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