Anatomy & Physiology

  1. Directional

    Superior (cranial)
    Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

    *the head is superior to the abdomen
  2. Directional

    Inferior (caudal)
    Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

    *the navel is inferior to the chin
  3. Directional

    Ventral (anterior)*

    *only synonymous in human, not animals
    Toward or at the front of the body; in front of

    *the breastbone is anterior to the spine
  4. Directional

    Dorsal (posterior)*
    toward or at the back of the body; behind

    *the heart is posterior to the breastbone
  5. Directional

    toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

    *the heart is medial to the arm
  6. Directional

    away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

    *the arms are lateral to the chest
  7. Directional

    between a more medial and a more lateral structure

    *the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
  8. Directional

    closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

    *the elbow is proximal to the wrist
  9. Directional

    farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

    *the knee is distal to the thigh
  10. Directional

    Superficial (external)
    toward or at the body surface

    *the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
  11. Directional

    Deep (internal)
    away from the body surface; more internal

    *the lungs are deep to the skin
  12. Anatomical Position
    Body erect with feet slightly apart, palms face forward w/thumbs pointing away from body.
  13. What is the definition of directional terms?
    directional terms allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another.
  14. What is the definition of regional terms?
    regional terms are used to designate specific areas within these major body divisions
  15. What are the 2 fundamental divisions of our body?
    Axial part - makes up the main axis; includes head, neck, and trunk

    Appendicular part - consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis
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  19. Regional term

    Cephalic (x7)
    • Anterior/Ventral:
    • Frontal - face
    • Orbital - eye
    • Nasal - nose
    • Oral - mouth
    • Mental - chin

    • Posterior/Dorsal:
    • Otic - ear
    • Occipital - back of head
  20. Regional term

    Thoracic (x3)
    • Sternal - sternum, center chest
    • Axillary - armpit
    • Mammary - pectoral/breast
  21. Regional term

  22. Regional term

    Upper Limb (x6)
    • Acromial - shoulder
    • Brachial - upper arm
    • Antecubital - inner elbow (anterior)
    • Olecranal - outer elbow (posterior)
    • Antebrachial - forearm
    • Carpal - wrist
  23. Regional term

    Manus (hand) x4
    • Pollex - bridge below thumb
    • Metacarpal - posterior palm
    • Palmar - palm
    • Digital - fingers
  24. Regional term

    Lower Limb (x7)
    • Coxal - hip
    • Femoral - thigh
    • Patellar - anterior knee
    • Popliteal - posterior knee
    • Crural - leg
    • Sural - calf
    • Fibular or peroneal - lower leg
  25. Regional term

    Pedal (Foot) x6
    • Tarsal - ankle
    • Calcaneal - heel
    • Metatarsal - top feet
    • Digital - toes
    • Plantar - bottom foot
    • Hallux -
  26. Regional term

    Back (dorsal) x6
    • Scapular - shoulder blade
    • Vertebral - spine
    • Lumbar - lower back
    • Sacral - tail bone
    • Gluteal - butt
    • Perineal - between anus and external genitalia
  27. Dorsal body cavity

    Name the 2 subdivisions
    protects the fragile nervous system organs

    • has 2 subdivisions:
    • a) cranial cavity - in skull, encases brain
    • b) vertebral, or spinal cavity - runs within bony vertebral column, encloses spinal cord
  28. Ventral body cavity

    Name the 2 subdivisions.
    • the more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities..... contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    • -- houses internal organs collectively called the viscera

    • 2 subdivisions:
    • a) thoracic cavity - contains heart and lungs, surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest
    •     ---pleural cavities (lungs)
    •     ---superior mediastinum
    •     ---pericardial cavity (below lungs)
    • b) abdominopelvic cavity - contains digestive viscera
    •     ---inferior part= pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum)
  29. Ipsilateral
    on same side
  30. Contralateral
    on opposite sides
Card Set
Anatomy & Physiology
ch 1