That behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture.
The belief that one's culture is superior to all other cultures, and the act of using one's cultural standards to judge another culture, are both known as....
Moral Relativism vs. Cultural Relativism
Which one is a methodological tool?
What is cultural relativism used for?
To avoid ethnocentric judgments of different cultures' beliefs and practices.
Cultural relativism is a ________, not a ______ _______.
method; moral position
What does moral relativism imply?
That there are no universal moral standards/ human rights
As such, practices & belief systems of any culture are ______ because there are ____ universal standards.
Important Aspects of Culture
Culture is ____, it is not _______.
What is the process by which culture is learned by an individual?
By what three ways is culture transmitted/ transmitted through?
How are cultural trait spread from group to group?
____ diffusion occurs through trade, intermarriage, and war
____ diffusion occurs when one culture subjugates another and forces it's customs on the other
____ diffusion occurs when items are passed from group a to group c via group b.
The exchange of culture when two cultures have firsthand contact is known as _________.
Define independent invention.
Cultures learning through experimentation and invention, independent of borrowing from other cultures.
Culture is _____, and made up of _____ and ______.
shared; symbols; rituals
Symbols, as described by Kottak, are "signs that have no _____ or _____ connection to the things that they signify"
True/False: Symbols are verbal or non-verbal, have connections to the things they signify that are totally arbitrary, and have meanings that do not change over time.
False. Meanings can change over time.
What are symbols that are repeated over time called?
Culture is ______: if one part of the system changes, others do as well.
Key values that integrate each culture and distinguish them from other cultures are known as ____ values.
Culture is ____ and _______: we are not passive recipients of culture.
active and creative
The actions that individuals take in forming and transforming culture.
The organization and power with society are known as ______.
Culture is both ______ and _______: humans are unique in their ability to adapt culturally, but some adaptations can be harmful.
Levels of Culture
Traditions that extend beyond national borders are known as ______ culture.
Traditions shared by citizens of the same nation are known as ______ culture.
Traditions shared by peoples in a given micro-local are known as ______ culture.
Commonalities of Culture
Social living, incest taboos, and sharing food are examples of _____ cultural features.
The western tradition of living in a nuclear family and the African tradition of a lineage system are examples of ______cultural features.
Unique features of each culture are known as _____ cultural features.
What is globalization?
The process by which cultures throughout the world are linked.