What is the overall purpose of restraint?
to minimize the response of the animal
What are the three goals of restraint?
- prevent injury to humans
- prevent injury to the animal
- accomplish task
What do we need to do in order to accomplish the goals of restraint?
- neutralize the animals weapons
- monitor the animals behavior and vital signs
- utilize restraint devices appropriately
- be prepared for the task which you intend to accomplish
- pay attention and be aware of your surroundings
Why do we need to monitor the large animals vital signs when restraining them?
they can easily stress themselves to death
Are all the different species of large animals predictable?
no, they vary between species
Is it easier to move groups of animals into a confined location or separate them individually?
easier to move them in groups
Do bovine like change?
no, it usually scares them
Are bovine herd oriented?
Do bovine move towards people or away from people?
away from people
Why should we avoid having right angles in bovine facilities?
bovine will get stuck in the corners when trying to get away and it is hard to get them out
What do bovine usually do in a confined space?
move towards the light
Are bovine aggressive?
yes it is common
Which types of bovine are the most aggressive?
- beef cows nursing calves
- dairy bulls
What are some things that bovine will do to protect themselves?
- kick (cow kick or kick forward with back legs)
What is the best way to get cattle to move?
use THEIR senses
What are some devices we can use to help get bovine to move?
- hot shot
- tail twist
What are the different restraint aids used for cattle?
- nose tongs
- ropes and lariats
What are nose tongs used for? Which types of cattle do we NOT use nose tongs on? What can be used as a temporary nose tong?
- head restraint
- dairy cattle
What is the single most important piece of equipment when working with cattle?
What should we have leading up to the head catch first?
a runway or chute
What can happen to a bovine if we squeeze them too tight in a squeeze chute?
causes them to lay down - "choke down"
How do we use a squeeze chute?
catch head first and then squeeze
What kind of restraint aids can we use to deter a cow from kicking?
- tail jack
- hobbles or tom fool knot
- kow kant kick
- rope tightened around abdomen just in front of tuber coxae
Whats another term for casting cattle?
What are the different types of casting cattle techniques?
- running W or burley
- squeeze or double half hitch
Describe a running W.
- longer rope needed
- no loop created around the neck
- usually avoids pressure on the trachea, penis, udder and milk veins
- two ropes exiting animal between the legs
Describe a double half hitch.
- loop around the neck or brisket
- one rope exiting the animal and the easiest technique if pulling with one person
What is a tilt table commonly used for in bovine?
foot work or surgery
Do swine like to chew on things?
Do swine easily overheat?
Do swine usually run under things or jump over things?
run under things
What is the easiest way to restrain a small pig?
can be held upside down by ropes around the hind limbs or between the holder's legs
What are some ways to restrain large pigs?
- move with pig boards
- hog tongs behind the head
- hog snare around maxilla
- bucket on head moves them backwards
- restraint chutes
What are some ways to restrain a goat?
- horns can be grabbed like handles
- collars can be used as handles
- milking platform
- restraint chutes
Which is the easiest food animal to restrain?
What are some ways to restrain sheep?
- restraint chute
- catch around the neck with one arm and around the rear or tail base with the other
- throwing sheep
Do horses frighten easily?
yes, because they are prey species
Can horses see with both eyes at the same time?
no, can only use one eye at a time
How should we approach a horse?
- from the left or "near" side (never directly from the front or back)
- calm yet deliberate movements
- firm voice and firm hand
- initial contact either at withers
What are some different types of halters for horses?
What are some different types of leads?
What might a horse do to defend itself?
- kick (usually straight back)
Should we always keep contact with the horse when we are moving around it?
yes, always keep your hand on the horse so that it does not startle the horse
How should we walk behind a horse?
walk behind either near or far (zero or eight feet) not in between
Where should the handler be while the vet is working on the horse?
on the same side as the vet
How should we tie up a horse?
- use a halter or quick release tie
- tie at head level
- tie short
- never leave unattended
What is the purpose of twitching a horse?
- offers a distraction or counter stimulus to stimulus elsewhere
- releases "endorphins"
How long is twitching a horse effective?
only effective for 15 minutes max but usually only lasts 5 - 10 minutes
What is the purpose of stocks for horses?
neutralizes the most damaging weapon
What is the purpose of lifting a foot or leg of a horse?
- helps to neutralize kicking
- pick up the leg on the same side we are working on
How do we catch a foal?
one arm in front of the chest, the other around rump or hand holding tail