Ch. 17/18 Vocab

  1. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Political theory on how to get power; used Greek and Roman examples
  2. Humanism
    humans as center of art
  3. European style family
    late marriage age; emphasis on nuclear families; goal was to limit birth rates.
  4. Johannes Gutenberg
    German; invented movable type in Europe
  5. Protestantism
    Christian but not Catholic
  6. Anglican Church
    set up by Henry VIII; initially created to challenge Catholic attempts to enforce his first marriage which failed to produce a male heir.
  7. Jean Calvin
    French; Calvanism insisted on God's prior determination of who would be saved
  8. Catholic Reformation
    An event in which Catholic church councils reestablished the Catholic doctrine in a church.
  9. Jesuits
    religious order in Europe; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored Catholic missionary activity
  10. Edict of Nantes
    1598; ended disputes between Calvanists and Catholics; granted tolerance to Protestants
  11. Thirty Years' War
    1618; religious war in Germany between Protestants and the Holy Roman Emperor
  12. Treaty of Westphalia
    1648; ended the Thirty Years' War
  13. English Civil War
    1640's; religious war in England; ended with limited toleration to some Protestant faiths, but none to Catholics.
  14. Protelariat
    people without access to wealth-producing property
  15. Scientific Revolution
    17th c.; time in Europe when many new scientific discoveries and political forms developed
  16. Copernicus
    Polish monk; discovered that the planets moved around the sun
  17. Galileo
    Italian; added to Copernicus' discoveries; laws of gravity and planetary motion
  18. John (William?) Harvey
    English physician; demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals and the function of the heart as a pump
  19. Rene Descartes
    established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom; argues that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
  20. Isaac Newton
    English scientist; wrote Principia; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity; drew many astronomical theories and observations together in a neat framework of natural laws
  21. John Locke
    English philosopher; argued... that people could learn anything through science and reason, that the power of gov't came from people
  22. absolute monarchy
    developed during the 17th c. in Western Europe; monarchs who pass laws without parliaments, appointed professional armies and bureaucracies, established state  churches; imposed state economic policies.
  23. Louis XIV 
    French monarch of the late 17th c.; personified absolute monarchy 
  24. Glorious Revolution
    1688; English overthrow of James II
  25. Parliamentary monarchy
    established in 17th c. in England and Holland; kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in paliaments
  26. Frederick the Great
    Prussian king of 18th c.; attempted to introduce enlightenment reforms in Germany; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy
  27. Adam Smith
    established liberal economics; argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces.
  28. Mary Wollstonecraft
    English; enlightenment feminist thinker; argued that new political rights should extend to women
Card Set
Ch. 17/18 Vocab