1. enzymes (2) normally present in the blood & have increased levels in the blood in persons with liver disease
    • alanine transaminase (ALT)
    • aspartate transaminase (AST)
  2. lab test on feces to determine if microscopic amts of blood are present
    • fecal occult blood test 
    • aka hemoccult or stool guaiac
  3. lab exam of feces w/microscope for presence of parasites or their eggs
    ova and parasites (O&P)
  4. blood test to determine amt of waste product bilirubin in the blood. elevated levels indicate liver disease
    serum bilirubin
  5. lab test of feces to determine if any pathogenic bacteria are present
    stool culture
  6. x-ray w/part of film holder b/w teeth and parallel to the teeth
    bite-wing x-ray
  7. dye is administered intravenously to the pt, which allows for x-ray visualization of the gallbladder and bile ducts
    intravenous cholecystography
  8. x-ray image of colon and rectum is taken after the administration of barium (a radiopaque dye) by enema
    • lower gastrointestinal series (lower GI series)
    • aka barium enema (BE)
  9. procedure in which contrast medium is injected directly into the liver to visualize the bile ducts. used to detect obsturctions
    percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)
  10. administering of a barium contrast material orally and then taking an x-ray to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
    • upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series
    • aka barium swallow
  11. flexible fiberscope passed through the anus, rectum, and colon; used to examine upper portion of the colon. polyps and small growths can be removed during this procedure
  12. procedure using endoscope to visually examine the hepatic duct, common bile duct, and pancreatic duct. endoscope is inserted into the anus and worked to the area where the pancreatic and common bile ducts empty into the duodenum
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
  13. use of a flex fiberoptic endoscope to visually examine the esophagus, stomach, and beginning of the duodenum
  14. procedure in which a flex gastroscope is passed through the mouth and down the esophagus in order to visualize the inside of the stomach. used to dx peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma
  15. lighted instrument which is passed into the ab wall through a small incision. ab cavity is then examined for tumors and other conditions
    • laparoscopy
    • aka peritoneoscopy
  16. procedure using a flex scope to visually examine the sigmoid colon. commonly done to dx cancer and polyps
  17. insertion of a needle into the ab cavity to w/draw fluid. tests to dx disease may be conducted on the fluid
  18. dental treatment involving hte pulp cavity of the root of a tooth
    root canal
  19. using a nasogastric (NG) tube to place liquid nourishment directly into the stomach
  20. using a nasogastric (NG) tube to wash out the stomach. for ex, after ingestion of dangerous substances
  21. flex catheter is inserted into the nose and down the esophagus to the stomach. may be used for feeding or to suction out stomach fluids
    nasogastric intubation (NG tube)
  22. providing 100% of a pt's nutrition intravenously
    total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
  23. to surgically create a connection b/w two organs or vessels. for ex, joining together two cut ends of the intestines after a section is removed
  24. group of surgical prodecures such as stomach stapling and restrictive banding to reduce the size of the stomach
    bariatric surgery
  25. crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct
  26. surgical creation of an opening of some portion of the colon through the ab wall to the outside surface. fecal material (stool) drains into a bag worn on the ab
  27. surgical removal of a diverticulum
  28. ab operation for the purose of examing the ab organs and tissues for signs of disease or other abnomralities
    exploratory laparotomy
  29. removal of a fistula
  30. procedure that closes off a large section of the stomach with rows of staples
    gastric stapling
  31. surgical removal of hemorrhoids from anorectal area
  32. surgical repair of a hernia
    • hernioplasty
    • aka herniorrhaphy
  33. surgical removal of the gallbladder through a very small ab incision with the assistance of a laparoscope
    laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  34. transplant of a liver from a donor
    liver transplant
  35. treats obestiy by suppressing appetite
  36. used to neutralize stomach acids
  37. treats nausea, vomiting, motion sickness
  38. induces vomiting
  39. used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. when stimulated, H2-receptors increase the production of stomach acid, so this is prevented in order have low acid level in stomach
    H2- receptor antagonist
  40. used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. blocks the stomach's ability to secrete acid
    proton pump inhibitors
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