Psychology Chapter 15

  1. Consciousness
    awareness of yourself and your surroundings
  2. Consciousness is Subjective
    you cannot share it with another person
  3. Consciousness is Selective
    you can be aware of some things while ignoring others
  4. Consciousness is Divided
    you can pay attention to two different things at once
  5. Consciousness is Continuous
    each moment of consciousness blends into the next moment
  6. Consciousness is Changing
    your awareness normally shirft to other things within seconds
  7. Consciousness is Multi-leveled
    ranges from an alert awareness to the relative stupor of deep sleep
  8. Circadian Rhythms 
    regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
  9. Hypothalamus
    • contains hormone melatonin which helps set sleep-wake cycle
    • artificial melatonin can help treat insomnia and depression
  10. Phase Delay
    • pushing sleep cycle back or making the day long
    • easier to adjust to
  11. Phase Advance
    shortened day less than 24 hours
  12. Changing Time Zones
    • force you body to adjust immediately to time change
    • this helps with jet lag
  13. Altered State of Consciousness
    an awareness of yourself and your surroundings that is noticably different from your normal state of consciousness
  14. Sleep
    • most common altered state of consciousness
    • a non-waking state of consciousness which you typically remain motionless and are only slightly responsive to your surroundings
  15. Stages of Sleep
    • NREM sleep, stages 1-4
    • REM sleep
    • about every 90-100 minutes you cycle through sleep stages
    • combined 1-4 stages take 50-70 minutes
  16. Beta Waves
    very fast, low-amplitude brain waves associated with an active alert state of mind
  17. Alpha Waves
    fast, low-amplitude brain waves associated with a relaxed, wakeful state of mind
  18. Stage 1
    • theta waves: irregular, small, rapid brainwaves
    • lasts a few minutes
    • HR, respiration slow, body temp drops and muscles relax
    • you can have sensations of floating, falling, and visual and auditory hallucinations
    • wake very easily
  19. Stage 2
    • lasts about 20 minutes
    • sleep spindles appear, which are bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity
    • typically sleep talking occurs here
  20. Stage 3
    begin to move into the deep form of slow-wave sleep
  21. Stage 4
    • delta waves: slow, high amplitude brain waves
    • very difficult to wake up
  22. REM Sleep
    • rapid eye movement
    • an active phase in the sleep cycle during which dreaming occurs, characterized by rapid eye movements
  23. Why We Need Sleep
    • sleep is essential in maintaining health
    • reaction time
    • microsleep
    • amount of sleep needed
  24. Dreams
    story-like sequences of visual images experienced during sleeps
  25. Lucid Dreams
    dreams in which people are aware that they are dreaming
  26. Dream As Wish Fulfillment
    • psychoanalytic theory of sigmund freud, who said dreams are disguised wishes of the unconscious mind
    • the dreamer remembers the surface meaning, or manifest content, of the dream
    • the true meaning of the dream, or latent content, is hidden from the dreamer to avoid anxiety
  27. Dreams As Information-Processing
    • off-line dream theory: a theory that dreaming is a time for consolidating and storing information gathered during the day
    • you process daily activities
    • if rem sleep is interrupted less learning of information occurs
    • spend more time in rem after learning difficult material
  28. Dreams As Interpreted Brain Activity
    • activation-synthesis theory: a theory that dreaming is the forebrain's attempt to interpret random neural activity coming from  the midbrain during sleep
    • left cerebral hemisphere is the brain's interpreter and makes sense of info and dream plots
    • the right hemisphere constructs the dream's visual features
  29. Insomnia
    • most common sleep disorder
    • chronic inability to fall or stay asleep
  30. Night Terror
    • a panic attack that generally occurs during early-night stage 4 NREM sleep in children between the ages of 3 and 8
    • sit up in bed, scream, stare into space and talk without making sense
    • seldom wake and have little memory of the event 
  31. Sleepwalking
    • a disorder in which a person wanders during early-night NREM sleep
    • more common among children than adults
    • more common among boys than girls
  32. Narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable REM sleep attacks durning normal waking hours
  33. Sleep Apnea
    • a sleep disorder in which sleeping individuals briefly stop breathing several times in an hour, interrupting sleep without the person's knowledge
    • common among overweight men
  34. Hypnosis
    a state of altered attention and awareness in which a person is unusually responsive to suggenstion
  35. Enriched Fantasy
    person can readily imagine unusual situations that differ form normal reality
  36. Cognitive Passivity
    instead of planning actions, the hypnotized person waits for the hypnotists to suggest thoughts or actions
  37. Heightened Selective Attention
    • hypnotized person focuses attention on the hypnotist's voice and ignores other stimuli
    • even pain that is unbearable during normal wakking state is tolerated through this focused attention
  38. Reduced Reality Testing
    hypnotized person tends to accept uncritically hallucinated experience suggested by the hypnotized
  39. Posthypnotic Amnesia
    • when instructed the hypnotized person forgets all or most of what occurred during the hypnotic session
    • these memories are restored when the hypnotist later gives a prearranged signal
  40. Hypnotizability 
    • the degree to which a person can enter a deep hypnotic state
    • children are the most hypnotizable
    • 15% of adults are highly hypnotizable about 10% can't be hypnotized
  41. Neodissociation Theory of Hypnosis
    • states that a hypnotized person has two streams of consciousness operating at the same time
    • one stream actively responds while the other simply observes
  42. Social Influence Theory of Hypnosis
    hypnosis is a normal state of consciousness in which people act the way they think  hypnotized persons are supposed to act
  43. Meditation
    • a mental exercise that focus attention and increase awareness
    • zen, transcendental meditation, and relaxation response
    • effective treatment of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse
    • known to reduce negative effects of heart disease and strengthen immune system
  44. Pyschoactive Drugs
    chemicals that change mental processes and behavior
  45. Drug Abuse
    continued drug use despite it interfering with the drug user's behavior or social relationships
  46. Drug Tolerance
    an effect of drug abuse in which greater amounts of the drug are necessary to produce the same result once produced by a smaller dose
  47. Physical Dependence
    the need of a drug to function normally
  48. Psychological Dependence
    a mental and emotional desire for the drug
  49. Types of Psychoactive Drugs
    • depressants
    • stimulants
    • hallucinogens
    • inhalants
  50. Depressants
    • pyschoactive drugs that slow down--or depress--the nervous system and decrease mental and physical activity
    • alcohol, sedatives, tranquillizer, and norcotics
  51. Alcoholism
    tolerance and physical dependence resulting form prolonged abuse of alcohol
  52. Stimulants
    • drugs that speed up -- or stimulate-- the nervous system and increase mental and physical activity
    • caffeine, nicotine, cocaine and amphetamines, methamphetamine, ecstasy, and Ritalin
  53. Hallucinations
    sensations and perceptions that occur without any external stimulation
  54. Hallucinogens
    psychoactive drugs that dramatically alter consciousness and produce hallucinations include LSD and marijuana
  55. LSD
    • a potent synthesized hallucinogenic drug that is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin
    • last 10-12 hours can have flashbacks
  56. Marijuana
    psychoactive drug that is made from the cannabis plant
  57. THC
    major psychoactive ingredient in marijuana
  58. Inhalants
    • chemicals whose vapors can be breathed in to produce a mind-altering effect
    • four categories: volatile solvents, aerosols, gases, nitrites
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 15
psych ch 15