Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies

  1. What is Guillain Barre syndrome?
    Serious spinal injury causing nerve impulse blockage.  Progressive muscle weakness and paralysis that moves up from the feet and reaches the diaphragm. 
  2. What is botulism?
    Causes muscle paralysis and fatal when it reaches the muscles of respiration.  Caused by bacteria in food.  
  3. What is carpopedal spasm?
    Respiratory alkalosis causes numbness around the hands, feet, and mouth.  If continues, then hands and feet will clench uncontrollably.  
  4. What is Kussmaul respirations?
    Hyperventilation, caused by acidosis.  Deep and labored, usually from a patient with DKA.  
  5. What is angioedema?
    Severe allergic swelling around the eyes and lips.
  6. What is the cilia?
    Small, hairlike structures that rhythmically wave in a pattern that helps move particulate matter up and out of the airway.  
  7. What are Goblet cells?
    Produce mucous that blankets the entire lining of the conducting airways.  
  8. What is the gas exchange interface?
    Process by which deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation releases carbon dioxide and is resupplied with oxygen before it enters the cardiac circulation.
  9. What is surfactant?
    Helps reduce surface tension and helps to keep the alveoli expanded and ready to exchange oxygen.  
  10. What is polycythemia?
    Thick blood caused by a surplus of red blood cells.  
  11. What is cor pulmonale?
    Right sided heart failure from chronic lung disease. 
  12. What is interstitial space?
    Network of gaps between air-filled alveoli and the capillaries which supply deoxygenated blood.  
  13. What is dead space?
    Part of the lung volume that does not participate in ventilation.  Usually about 1mL per pound of ideal body weight.  
  14. What is ventilation?
    Movement of air in and out of the lungs
  15. What is diffusion?
    Molecule of oxygen travels from an alveoli to a red blood cell, it must first diffuse (pass through) one side of the alveolar cell, across the membrane, and out the other.  
  16. What is the Hering-Breuer reflex?
    Reflex that causes us to choke or cough if we take too deep a breath, keeping the lungs from overinflating.  
  17. What is diuresis?
    Fluid balance disorder - can't remove fluid from system - CHF
  18. What is paradoxical respiratory movement?
    Epigastrum is pulled in as the abdomen is pushed out, creating a see-saw effect
  19. What is pulsus paradoxus?
    Weak or absent pulses on inhalation are caused by extreme pressure changes in the thorax.  
  20. What is pursed lip breathing?
    COPDers - have trouble pushing air out.  Purse their lips and blow out long breaths.    
  21. What is wheezing?
    Continuous sounds that can be heard through some portion of each breath.  High pitched.  Asthma or CHF or when a foreign body obstructs a bronchus. Single note - monophonic, many notes, like a bagpipe - polyphonic. 
  22. What is crackles?
    Discontinuous sounds are pops, snaps, and clicks.  Popping open of air spaces - fine crackles.  Movement of fluid or secretions - coarse crackles.  
  23. What is Rales?
    High pitched crackles heard at the end of inspiration.  Pulmonary edema. 
  24. What is ronchi?
    Low pitched crackles caused by secretions in the larger airway.  
  25. What are agonal breath sounds?
    Irregular, widely spaced, neurologic impulses in a dying patient.  
  26. What are apneustic breathing patterns?
    Prolonged inspiratory hold.  Indicates severe brain injury
  27. What are Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
    Crescendo-Decrescendo breathing with apnea between cycles. 
  28. What is Fowler's position?
    Sitting up, position that helps breathing efforts.  Semi-Fowler - 45degree
  29. What is Jugular venous distension?
    Veins are engorged with blood.  Common with asthma or COPD.  Specific sign of right sided MI.
  30. What is pitting edema?
    When the fingers leave temporary depression in tissue from excess fluid. 
  31. What is orthopnea?
    Shortness of breath induced by lying flat. 
  32. What is pnuemonitis?
    Gastric acid irritates the lung tissue after aspiration of vomitus. 
  33. What is status asthmaticus?
    Severe, prolonged asthmatic attack that can't be stopped with conventional treatment.  
  34. Bronchospasm vs Edema?
    Bronchospasm is when the muscle contracts, causing the tube to narrow. 

    Edema is when the tube wall swells, causing the lumen to narrow.
  35. What is hypoxic drive?
    Stimulus to breath comes from a decrease in oxygen, rather than an increase in CO2.  Only a small percentage of COPD patients breath with the hypoxic drive.  
  36. What is hemoptysis?
    Coughing up blood in the sputum.
  37. What is pleural effusion?
    Excessive amounts of fluid in the pleural space. 
  38. What is a Greenfield filter?
    Opens like a mesh umbrella in the main vein that returns blood to the heart, intended to catch clots that can break loose and travel to the legs.  
  39. What is Kussmaul respirations?
    Pattern characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, with marked hyperpnea and tachypnea.  
Card Set
Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies
Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies