Chapter 14.4 The Impact of European Expansion (1)

  1. First two great colonial powers were __and __à decline led to __prominenceà rivalries with __and __à (18th) __
    • Spain
    • Portugal 
    • Dutch
    • England
    • France 
    • Great Britain
  2. The Conquered
    Different Regions= different effects
    Native Americas
    • a.      Different regions= different effects
    •                                                               i.      Native Americans destroyed due to sophistication not being appreciated
    • 1.      Devastating losses of population from European diseases, ancent social and political structures replaced by European culture, religion, language, etc. 
  3. The Conquered
    Africa
    • 1.      Estimates of the population in W. Africa say that slave trade negated rather than declined population
    • 2.      Politically and socially, the slave trade encouraged growth of territiories, where leaders wared for slaves to trade for guns and powder
    • a.      Without slave trade, they were vulnerable
  4. The Conquered
    Asia
    • 1.      Portuguese trading posts little impact
    • 2.      Dutch control of Indonesian archipelago pervasive
    • 3.      China and Japan little effect
    • 4.      India subject to British encroachment
  5. The Conquered
    Central and South America
    • 1.      Multiracial due to intermarriage
    • a.      Spanish and Portuguese settlers were few in number and males
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Used females for sex and marriage
    • b.      Native American Indians+ Europeans= mestizos
    • c.       Africans brought in to work plantations
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Africans and whites= mulattoes
  6. The Conquered
    Ecology
    • 1.      Europeans brought horses and cattle, advancing life of Indians
    • a.      Cattle farmingà growing maize and large estates for cattle raising
    • b.      S. America= great exporter of beef
    • c.       New crops and carried New World plants with them 
  7. The Conquered
    Catholic Missionaries
    •                                                               i.      Missionaries spread Christianity
    • 1.      Spanish and Portuguese determined to Christianize natives
    • a.      Policy gave Catholic church important role in New One, adding to its power
    • 2.      Missionaries brought Indians together into villages, where they were converted, taught trades, and encouraged to grow crops
    • a.      Missionaries controlled their lives and helped make sure they’d remain members of empire
    • b.      Missions served as military barriers to foreign encroachment
  8. The Conquered
    Catholic Church
    • 1.      Constructed hospitals, orphanages, and schools
    • a.      Monastic schools taught Indians reading, writing, and arithmetic
    • 2.      For women= outlets through nunneries and religious order
    • a.      Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One of Latin America’s best-known literary figures who wrote poetry and prose and promoted the education of women
  9. The Conquered
    Church Missionaries
    • 1.      To china, especially the Jesuits
    • a.      Highly educated who knew philosophy and science, brought clocks,e tc. 
  10. The Conquered
    Catholic Church Jesuits and China
    • 1.      Used openness and similarities with Confucian ethics to help Chinese convert
    • a.      Effort undermined by squabbling among religious orders themselves
    • 2.      Allowed new Ctatholics to continue practice of ancestor worship to make conversion easier
    • a.      Jealous Dominicans and Franciscans complained to pope, who condemned it; Chinese authorities then began to suppress Christian activities throughout China 
  11. The Conquered
    Catholic Church Jesuits and Japan
    • a.      Converted local nobles
    • b.      Practice of destroying local idos and shrines and turning temples into Christian schools or churches led to execution of missionaries and Japanese converts after Spanish Franciscans tried it
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When missionaries tried to interfere in local politics, Tokugawa expelled all missionaries and persecuted Japanese Christians
Author
marquezd1
ID
191830
Card Set
Chapter 14.4 The Impact of European Expansion (1)
Description
Europe in the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
Updated