Chapter 14.3: New Rivals on the World Stage (2)

  1. The West in Southeast Asia: Portugal
    • a.      Portugal’s efforts to dominate trade of SE Asia= unsuccessful
    •                                                               i.      Lacked numbers and wealth to overcome local resistence and colonize asian regions
    •                                                             ii.      Empire too large, but Portugal too small to maintain ità rivals, such as Spain, Dutch, English, 
  2. The West in Southeast Asia: Spain
    •                                                               i.      Established selves in region where Magellan landed in Philippinesà Spanish gain control over Philippines, which became a major Spanish base in the trade across the Pacific
    • 1.      Spanish ships carried silk, etc. to Mexico for silver 
  3. The West in Southeast Asia: Dutch and English
    • a.      Dutch and English: primary threat
    •                                                               i.      Better financed
    •                                                             ii.      Shift in power began in 17th c. when Dutch seized Portuguese fort in the Moluccas and pushed them out of spice trade
    • 1.      Next fifty years, Dutch occupied most of Portuguese coastal forts, along trade routes throughout Indian Ocean, including Ceylon, and seized Malacca in 1641
    • a.      Dutch drove English out too, restricting them to a single port on southern coast of Sumatra
  4. The West in Southeast Asia: Dutch
    •                                                               i.      Dutch began to consolidate their political and military control voer entire area
    • 1.      Java: established a fort at Batavia and found it necessary to bring inland regions under their control to protect their position
    • a.      On Java and Sumatra, the Dutch East Idia Company established pepper plantations, which was source of profits for Dutch merchants in Amsterdam
    • 2.      End of 18th: succeeded in bringing almost entire Indonesian archipelago under their control 
  5. The West in Southeast Asia: Arrival of Europeans
                                                                  i.      Arrival of the Europeans had less impact on mainland SE Asia, where strong monarchies in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam resisted foreign encroachment
  6. The West in Southeast Asia: Arrival of Europeans 16th and 17th 
    • 1.      16th: Portuguese established limited trade relations with several mainland states, including Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam, and the remnants of the old Angkor kingdom in Cambodia
    • 2.      17th: other nations followed and competed for trade and missionary privileges
    • a.      To gain advantages, the Europeans became involved in local factional disputes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Yet, the nations united and drove them out
  7. The West in Southeast Asia: Vietnam
    • 1.      Arrival of Western merchants and missionaries coincided with period of internal conflict among ruling groups
    • a.      Expansionà civil warà division into north and south
    • b.      After their arrival in mid-17th, the European powers sided in politics, with Portuguese and Dutch supporting other factions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      They also set up trading posts for merchants, but most were abandoned when economic opportunities became limited
    • c.       French missionaries tried to remain , but opposed by authorities who saw Catholicism as threat to Vietnamese emperor
  8. a.      Why were mainland states able to resist European challenge better than states in Malay world?
    • 1.      Cohesive nature of states,
    • a.      Malay had less
    • b.      Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand defined themselves as distinct political entities
    • 2.      Malay states victims of own resources
    • a.      Spice trade= profitable, leading to determination of Europeans to gain control, which led to control
Card Set
Chapter 14.3: New Rivals on the World Stage (2)
Europe and the World, New Horizons, 1500-1800