Chapter 14.2: New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires (2)

  1. I.                   Voyages to the New World
    • a.      Spanish attempted to reach same destination as Portuguese by sailing across Atlantic
    •                                                               i.      Their greater resources allowed establishment of far grander overseas empire than Portuguese
  2. Columbus Funding
    • a.      Columbus
    •                                                               i.      Knowledgeable Europeans knew earth was round, but didn’t know circumference or extent of Asia
    • 1.      Columbus misled by assumed circumference of Asia and thought he could sail west instead of around Africa
    • a.      Rejected by Portuguese, but supported by Queen Isabella of Spain
  3. Columbus Voyages
    •                                                               i.      Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria, and 90 men on Aug 3, 1492
    • 1.      Oct 12: Bahamas and then Cuba and Hispanoila
    • a.      He thought it was Asiaand told Isabella and Ferdinand that he’d find gold and convert the natives
    •                                                             ii.      Three other voyages, he sought Asian mainland
    •                                                           iii.      In his four voyages, he landed on all major islands of the Caribbean and mainland of Central America
  4. Other Explorers after Columbus: John Cabot, Pedro Cabral, Amerigo Vespucci
    •                                                               i.      John Cabot
    • 1.      Explored New England coastline of Americas under license from Henry VII of England
    •                                                             ii.      South America discovered accidently by Pedro Cabral in 1500
    •                                                           iii.      Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine
    • 1.      Wrote letters describing geography of New Worldà “America”
  5. Other Explorers after Columbus: Balboa, Magellan
    •                                                               i.      Vasco Nunez de Balboa, a Spanish explorer
    • 1.      Led expedition across Isthmus of Panama and reached Pacific in 1513
    •                                                             ii.      Ferdinand Magellan in 1519
    • 1.      After passing through strait at southern tip of S. America, he sailed across Pacific Ocean and reached Phillipines, were he was killed by natives
  6. New Territory
    • a.      Europeans called new territory the New World
    •                                                               i.      Americas= opportunities for conquest and exploitation
    • b.      Interests:
    •                                                               i.      Spanish: 1494 treaty of Tordesillas
    • 1.      Divided up new world into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence and most of South America were in Spanish Sphere
    • a.      Route east around Cape of Good Hope= Portuguese
    • b.      Route across Atlantic= Spain
Card Set
Chapter 14.2: New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires (2)
Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800