What drugs do we use to castrate a horse?
- injectable anesthesia
- xylazine and ketamine
What age do we typically castrate horses?
around 2 years old
Is horse castration a sterile procedure?
How are sheep and goats typically castrated?
Is castrating a bull a sterile procedure?
no, just has to be clean
Can we band pigs for castration?
no, their scrotum is too close to their body so they have to be cut
When are newborn calves castrated?
during calf processing - usually at day 1
When are pigs usually castrated?
What is the Callicrate Banding System?
- used to band older bulls
- put rubber band around testicles and tighten
What can the Callicrate Banding System cause?
Define burdizzo emasculatome.
- bloodless castration for bull calves that simply crushes the spermatic cord through the scrotum
- clamped and held in place for 1.5 - 2 minutes
When do we use burdizzo emasculatome?
at weaning weight
Define elastrator and rubber rings.
bloodless castration device for newborn calves, lambs, and kids
What is the limiting factors for using the elastrator?
it doesn't stretch the rubber band very large so it can only be used for small newborn calves and small ruminants
Define white emasculator.
- surgical instrument for castration of colts/stallions
- hold in place for 2 minutes
- cuts and clamps the spermatic cord
Is the white emasculator a sterile technique?
Define newberry knife.
instrument to simply incise the scrotum of a bull calf to perform a surgical castration
Define barnes dehorner.
- sharp on each edge - place over horns and cuts and scoops the horn out - must put pressure while scooping
- use electric dehorner after to cauterize
What is another name for the barnes dehorner?
What animal is the barnes dehorner primarily used for?
Define electric dehorner.
simply burns the horn bud or base killing the tissue
What animals is the electric dehorner used on?
- newborn or young cattle
- some sheep
Which dehorner is the most common?
Define guillotine dehorner and scissor dehorner.
- big devices used for dehorning bigger horns
- lots of bleeding and pain
Instead of using the guillotine dehorner or the scissor dehorner, how else can we dehorn larger/older animals?
cosmetic dehorning - sterile surgery where the horn is cut out at the base using giggly wire then sutured closed
Define tube dehorner.
- small device for the surgical removal of small horns
- typically used in goats
- sharp on the end - twist back and forth while it cuts and the horn will fall off
What is electric tail docking?
- cuts and cauterizes at the same time
- mainly used in sheep
What is dehorning paste and what is the down fall of using it?
- sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide
- rub on horn bud
- some can be rubbed off while nursing
Define hoof pick.
used to remove gross dirt/debris/manure from the bottom of the hoof
Define hoof knives.
- used to shave away sold or frog material
- sharp on one edge and around the crook
What are the different types of hoof knives?
- left and right handed
- double edged
Define hoof rasp.
file to shave or shape hoof wall
Define hoof nipper.
- used to trim hoof wall material
- flat across the top of the tool
What are the two tools only used for the hoof wall?
Define shoe puller.
- used to pull shoes with nails in place (after the clinch has been cut)
- usually rounded across the top
Define nail puller.
used to pull individual nails of a creased horse shoe
Define clinch cutter.
- cuts the clinch (the bent over part at the top of the nail)
- looks like a sharp chisel
Define hoof tester.
device used to squeeze the foot in various manners to pinpoint the location of a lameness in the foot (to find the sore spot)
Define small ruminant hoof trimmer.
- same as the hoof trimmer used for horses
- helps prevent foot rot
Define bovine hoof trimmer.
- same as the hoof trimmer used for horses but not as precise
- used to cut off the over grown tips of the hooves
Define equine vaginal speculum.
sterile device used to visualize the cervix
Define ewe bearing retainer.
- to hold the replaced prolapsed vagina in
- tied to fleece or sutured to skin
- dead, rotten, swollen calf that has to be cut out piece by piece through the vagina
- cut using OB wire
Define OB wire.
- used with the fetotome
- but can also be used for cosmetic dehorning of adult cattle, cutting bone, splitting teeth
Define rectal sleeves.
- non-sterile for OB work in food animal or rectal palpation
- sterile for OB work in horses
Define lamb puller.
loop around head and place the "v" in mouth then pull lamb straight out
Define OB chains.
- for extremities or potentially the head of the fetus for forced fetal extractions in cows and mares.
- used like a choke cain - place chain around head and then in mouth then pull cow out
Define OB handles.
easier to pull the chains with
How much force should we use to pull an animal out of the womb?
Don't pull with any more force then 3 adults can pull with - if the baby does not come out then do a C-section
Define fetal extraction/calf jack.
- attaches to the cow and crank it - only crank when the cow is pushing and then stop when the cow stops
- can be done with one person, but pulls with the force of 3 people
Define buhner needle.
- used to place a "pseudo purse string" around the vulva of a cow to keep a prolapsed vagina/uterus in
- vaginal prolapse occurs during late gestation
- uterine prolapse occurs during postpardum
Define umbilical tape.
- material used for "pseudo purse string"
- as strong as a shoe string
powder that turns to lube when added to warm water
Define balling gun.
big pill popper for cattle
What do we call a "pills" in large animals?
Define schoupe speculum.
placed between the cheek teeth on one side of the horse's mouth to hold the mouth open for floating, examination, etc.
Define frick speculum.
provides a guarded access for the stomach tube or bolus to be passed through the oral cavity in cattle
Define harp speculum.
allows for guarded passage of stomach tube or cursory examination of the oral cavity in pigs and small ruminants
Define McPherson and Conrad speculum.
full mouth speculums that open mouth at level of incisors.
Define equine dental floats.
- we have manual ones at school
- but most floating is done with power equipment these days
Define dosing syringe.
to administer liquid meds to food animals
What are the different colors for the stomach tubes used for the different animals?
- black for cattle
- clear for equine and other small ruminants
Define stomach or drench pump?
to administer large amounts of liquid medication through a stomach tube
Define tooth nipper.
used to clip the needle teeth in newborn pigs
Define esophageal feeder.
- foolproof device to administer something to newborn calf or foal
- the blue bulb makes it go down the esophagus easier
Define reticulum magnets.
for prevention and treatment of hardware disease in dairy cattle
Define Iowa hog snare.
loop into mouth and tighten around the maxilla back at the commissure of the lips - catches the snout of the pig
Define hog tongs.
to pinch the back of the neck halfway between the ears and shoulders
squeeze the lip and nose
Define kow kant kick.
- device placed around the caudal abdomen just in front of the tuber coxae
- locks stifle in extension so it can't kick
placed on the rear feet typically as a kick deterrent
Define calf weaners.
- there are 2 kinds, both go in the the nose...
- spikes on the end so it presses against mother and mother won't let calf nurse
- shield over the face and prevents access to nurse
- these are not used often
Define California Mastitis Test paddle.
- used in conjunction with a special solution as a quick cowside test to detect subclinical mastitis
- holding the paddle starting at the top and going clockwise - LR (D), LF (C), RF (A), RR (B)
Define ear notcher.
used to notch pigs ears for identification purposes - part of baby pig processing
Define ear tagger and tags.
different types for placement of floppy plastic tags or metal ID tags
Define Ear tattoo pliers.
- universal, tattoo the ear with any number from 0 - 9999
- rub tattoo ink on ear and then squeeze ear into tattoo pliers, then rub the tattoo ink down into the holes...the rest will wash off
Define brucellosis tags and tattoo pliers.
- tags are orange metal ones with ID number
- pliers to place the special bangs tattoo
- both go in the right ear
Define equine endotracheal tube.
same as small animal, just bigger
Define equine fly mask.
- to reduce fly worry/bother in horses
- potentially to reduce transmittable ocular disease
- also provides some protection from UV radiation
Define large animal rubber IV set.
- reusable for administration of fluids typically in treatment of milk fever or grass tetany
- usually placed in the jugular vein
Define mare urinary catheter.
like a stainless steal bitch catheter, just bigger
Define cow urinary catheter.
same as the mare urinary catheter, but has a ball on the end
Define wax paint sticks.
for temporary ID of animals
Define sorting stick
used as an extension of the hand
Define show stick.
has a spur to touch to show steer's/heifer's foot to get them to move it to a better position
Define sorting paddle.
pin it to the ground to move/crowd pigs
Define hot shot.
used only when it is absolutely necessary (example - when animal is compromised or to prevent human injury) to get the animal to move or get up
Define sweat scraper.
most often used to "squigee" a horse dry after hosing
Define cattle trochar.
- last ditch effort to decompress a bloated bovine
- stick it in the rumen up high on the left side and it allows for gas to be released
Define weight tapes.
- provides a pretty accurate weight if used properly
- one for each species and may even have breed differences on them
- measure circumference around heart girth in bovine
- for hogs measure length first (from middle of ears to tail) then measure circumference
Define scrotal circumference tapes.
- part of the breeding soundness exam
- measured in cm
- the bigger the circumference the more fertile