1. A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
  2. A balance of all systems of the body.
  3. Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cell's current needs.
  4. 1)  Adequate concentration of inspired O2.
    2)  Appropriate movement of O2 across the alveolar-capillary membrane into the arterial bloodstream.
    3)  Adequate # of RBC to carry O2
    4)  Proper tissue perfusion
    5)  Efficient off-loading of 02 at the tissue level
    Fick Principle
  5. A passive process in which molecules move from an area with a higher concentration of molecules to an area with a lower concentration.
  6. Circular muscles that encircle and, by contracting, constrict a duct, tube, or opening.
  7. The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart rate, BP, digestion, and sweating.
    Autonomic Nervous System
  8. The volume of blood that the heart can pump per minute.
    Cardiac Output (CO)
  9. The ability of the heart muscle to contract.
    Myocardial Contractility
  10. The precontraction pressure in the heart as the volume of blood builds up.
  11. The force or resistance against which the heart pumps.
  12. What is one of the initial signs of hypoperfusion?
    Altered Mental Statue (AMS)
  13. Resistance to blood flow within all of the blood vessels except the pulmonary vessels.
    Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
  14. What is the formula to determine Cardiac Output?
    • Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
    • CO = HR x SV
  15. What is the formula to determine Blood Pressure?
    • Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output x Systemic Vascular Resistance
    • BP = CO x SVR
  16. The BP required to sustain organ perfusion in the average person.
    Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
  17. What is the mean arterial pressure in the average person?
    60 mm Hg
  18. What is the formula to determine Mean Arterial Pressure?
    • Mean Arterial Pressure = (Cardiac Output x Systemic Vascular Resistance) + Central Venous Pressure
    • MAP = (CO x SVR) + CVP
  19. What is the perfusion triangle?
    • The heart
    • The blood vessels
    • The blood
  20. Receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis.
  21. A decrease in systolic pressure to less than ___ mm Hg stimulates the vasomotor center to increase arterial pressure by constricting vessels.
  22. Receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood and help maintain homeostasis.
  23. Where are the main baroreceptors located?
    • Carotid arteries
    • Aortic arch
  24. Where are the main chemoreceptors located?
    • Carotid arteries
    • Aortic arch
    • Medulla oblongata
  25. Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of O2.
    Aerobic Metabolism
  26. The metabolism that takes place in the absence of O2.
    Anaerobic Metabolism
  27. Affecting the heart's rate of contraction.
    Chronotropic effects
  28. Affecting the heart's velocity of conduction.
    Dromotropic effect
  29. Affecting the contractility of the heart muscle.
    Inotropic effect
  30. A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs, such as the lungs, liver, and kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, which occurs after severe illness or injury.
    Multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)
  31. Shock caused by inadequate function of the heart, or pump failure.
    Cardiogenic Shock
  32. The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling of the affected area.
  33. Shock that occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.
    Obstructive Shock
  34. Compression of the heart caused by a buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac.
    • Cardiac Tamponade
    • Pericardial Tamponade
  35. What is Beck's triad?
    • Jugular Vein Distention (JVD)
    • Muffled heart sounds
    • Narrowing pulse pressure
  36. What is Beck's triad indicative of?
    Cardiac Tampinade
  37. The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
    Pulse pressure
  38. An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space that progressively collapses the lung with potentially fatal results.
    Tension Pneumothorax
  39. What is a late sign of a tension pneumothorax?
    Tracheal deviation
  40. What are the two most common types of obstructive shock?
    • Cardiac Tamponade
    • Tension Pneumothorax
  41. A condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both.
    Distributive Shock
  42. What are the four most common types of distributive shock?
    • Septic Shock
    • Neurogenic Shock
    • Anaphylactic Shock
    • Psychogenic Shock
  43. Shock caused by severe infection, usually a bacterial infection.
    Septic Shock
  44. Circulatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in pt. with spinal cord injuries.
    Neurogenic Shock
  45. Severe shock caused by an allergic reaction.
    Anaphylactic Shock
  46. Shock caused by a sudden, temporary reduction in blood supply to the brain that causes syncope.
    Psychogenic Shock
  47. Syncope
  48. A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95oF (35oC), usually as a result of prolonged exposure to cool or freezing temperatures.
  49. At what temperature does the body enter hypothermia?
    95oF (35oC)
  50. An unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign protein or other substances.
  51. Developing a sensitivity to a substance that initially caused no allergic reaction.
  52. Name the four categories of allergic reactions.
    • Injections
    • Stings
    • Ingestion
    • Inhalation
  53. Bluish color of the skin resulting from poor oxygenation of the circulating blood.
  54. A swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall.
  55. Shock caused by fluid or blood loss.
    Hypovolemic Shock
  56. The loss of water from the tissues of the body.
  57. Name the three stages of shock.
    • Compensated
    • Decompensated
    • Irreversible
  58. The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss; also called nonprogressive shock.
    Compensated shock
  59. The late stage of shock when the BP is falling; also called progressive shock.
    Decompensated shock
  60. The final stage of shock, resulting in death.
    Irreversible shock
  61. The narrowing of pulse pressure is seen in what stage of shock?
  62. Assessing V/s in two different pt. positions to determine the degree of hypovolemia; positive results include a increase in pulse rate and a decrease in systolic BP when changing from a lying position to a standing position.
    Orthostatic Vital Signs
  63. A drop in BP indicates the pt. has entered what stage of shock?
  64. Most physician Dx is based on what?
  65. If a pt. has a carotid pulse then they have a BP of at least ___.
    60 mm Hg systolic
  66. If a pt. has a femoral pulse then they have a BP of at least ___.
    70 mm Hg systolic
  67. If a pt. has a radial pulse then they have a BP of at least ___.
    80 mm Hg systolic
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