BIO 111 Chap 21

  1. Virus (latin)
  2. Virus
    Noncellular infectious particle that cannot replicate on its own
  3. Virus Makeup
    • It has a protein coat around genetic material that may be DNA or RNA
    • Some have a lipid envelope that covers their coat
    • They have no ribosomes, cytoplasm or other metabolic machinery of its own
    • Small - 25 to 300 nanometers
  4. Virus Replication
    Must insert its genetic material into a cell of a specific organism
  5. Three origins of virus
    • Descendants of cell parasites whose function was taken over by the host cell
    • Genetic elements that escaped from cells
    • A separate evolutionary branch, that arose independently from the replication molecules that preceded cells
  6. Virus Structure
    • Tobacco mosaic
    • Bacteriophages
    • Adenoviruses
    • Enveloped virus
  7. Tobacco mosaic
    Helically arranged protein subunits from a rod around RNA
  8. Bacteriophages
    20 triangular surfaced head on the sheath (rod) to the tail fibers
  9. Adenovirus
    20 sided naked (no envelope) with protein spikes at each corner
  10. Enveloped virus
    Enveloped virus with protein spikes protruding from the envelope
  11. Vitamin C
    Ascorbic Acid
  12. Pathogenic
    Causes adverse effect
  13. Pathogen
    • A disease-causing agent
    • Virus reproduction pathways
    • Lytic Pathway
    • Lysogenic Pathway
  14. Lytic Pathway(Active)
    Makes more virus
  15. Lysogenic Pathway(Passive)
    Latent (hides)
  16. Viral Multiplication cycles
    • Attachment
    • Penetration
    • Replication and synthesis
    • Assembly
    • Release
  17. Prophage
    Hybridization of bacteria and virus DNA
  18. HIV virus pathway
    • Attachment
    • Penetration
    • Reverse transcriptase
  19. Reverse transcriptase
    An enzyme that catalyzes production of the DNA
  20. Proteins on the Influenza virus (receptors)
    • Hemagglutinin
    • Neuraminidase
  21. Reassortment
    The swapping of genes between viruses that infect a host at the same time
  22. Prokaryotic structure
    • Rods (bacilli)
    • Spheres (Cocci)
    • Spirals (spirilla)
  23. Binary Fission(slides 9-11)
    • Prokaryotic fission
    • Duplication of DNA
    • Tether
    • Double in size
    • Split
  24. Plasmid
    • Small circle of DNA that is separate from the bacterial chromosome
    • Confer resistance to anti-biotic
  25. Conjugation
    A mechanism of horizontal gene transfer which involves transfer of a plasmid between prokaryotic cells
  26. Anabaena
    Cyanobacteria that carry out nitrogen fixation
  27. Nitrogen fixation
    Process of incorporating nitrogen from the air into ammonia
  28. Cyanobacteria
    Bacteria that use light capturing chlorophylls and release oxygen
  29. Heterocysts
    Cell in a chain that fix nitrogen (simular to mesophyll cell in C3 plants)
  30. Carl Woese
    Discover archaeans and proposed the three domain system
  31. Methanogens
    • Methane producers
    • Live in the gut or animals and in marshes
    • Are strictly anaerobic (free oxygen kills them)
  32. Extreme halophiles
    Salt Lovers
  33. Extreme thermophiles
    Heat lovers
Card Set
BIO 111 Chap 21
BIO 111 Chap 21