What elements are lipid subunits made up from?
C, H and O
What is the structure of glycerol?
What is the basic structure of fatty acids?
Fatty acids have a long hydrocarbon tail at one end of the molecule and a carboxylic acid group at the other end
What is the difference between saturated and non-saturated fatty acids?
Saturated fatty acids have single C-C bonds in their hydrocarbon tail whereas unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double C=C bond
Are saturated fatty acids solid or liquid at room temperature?
Are unsaturated fatty acids solid or liquid at room temperature?
When lipids are formed, what part of the fatty acid joins with which part of the glycerol?
The carboxylic acid group (COOH) of the fatty acid joins with a hydroxyl group (-OH) of the glycerol
What type of bond is formed when making a lipid?
An ester bond
Are ester bonds strong or weak bonds?
What type of reaction occurs when glycerol and fatty acids join together? What type of molecule is released?
A dehydration synthesis reaction (condensation reaction)
What is the name of the molecule which is formed when (a) one fatty acid (b) two fatty acids and (c) three fatty acids join to one glycerol?
What type of fat molecule can be used in storage of energy? Where are these molecules found?
In animals, they are found in adipose cells under the skin where they also act as a heat insulator
What type of fat molecules can be structural molecules in membranes?
What type of fat molecules can be hormones? What type of structure do they have? Give examples of these types of hormones
They consist of four rings of carbon with a variety of protruding side chains
Testosterone (important in muscle development and male puberty) and Cholesterol (regulates the fluidity of the plasma membrane)
Advanced Higher Biology - Unit One - Lipids