1. Appeal to Unqualified Authority
    • Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    • claim made by someone unqualified to make that particular claim
  2. Appeal to Ignorance
    • Argumentum an Ignorantiam
    • "It's so because no-one can disprove it"
  3. Hasty Generalization
    • Converse Accident
    • to generalize from a small example
  4. Fallacy of Accident
    • Dicto Simpliciter
    • Sweeping Generalization
  5. Non Causa Pro Causa
    • premise does not follow conclusion
    • the argument mistakes the cause for the effect
  6. Reversing Cause and Effect
    The argument asserts a-->b when causally b--->a or a-->b-->a they feed off of eachother
  7. post hoc, ergo proptor hoc
    • after this therefore on account of this
    • the fallacy presupposes just because one event precedes another event the first event is the cause of the second
  8. Oversimplified Cause
    occurs when a multitude of causes is responsible for a certain effect but the arguer selects just one of these causes and represents it as if it were the sole cause
  9. Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
    asserts a is a cause and only cause of b, a is a necessary cause of b~assumes only one way a can cause b
  10. Slippery Slope
    • The Thin End of the Wedge, The Camel's Nose, The Fallacy of the Beard, The Domino Fallacy
    • A-->B-->C-->D D is really bad and will come if A, A caused of D is to tenuous to be credible
  11. Weak Analogy
    the analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion
  12. Appeal to Force
    Argumentum ad Baculum
  13. Appeal to Fear
    Argumentum ad Metum
  14. Appeal to Pity
    Argumentum ad Misericordiam
  15. Appeal to Spite
    Argumentum ad Odium
  16. Appeal to the People
    • Argumentum ad Populum
    • everybody is doing it
  17. Bandwagon Argument
    Mob Appeal
  18. Appeal to Vanity, Snobbery, Pride, Success or Wealth
    if you A you will be beautiful, higher class, great, succuessful, or wealthy
  19. Argumentum Ad Hominem
    Argument Against the Person
  20. Ad Hominem Abusive
    attacks the speaker
  21. Ad Hominem Circumstantial
    attacks the speakers motives ~ "Of course he wants it he will earn a fortune off of it"
  22. Ad Hominem tu quoque
    attacking hypocracy ~ "well you do it too"
  23. Poisoning the Well
    discrediting the speaker before the argument is given
  24. Genetic Fallacy
    attacking the origin of the argument
  25. Missing the Point
    • Ignoratio Elenci
    • draw a conclusion that doesn't follow the premise or the conclusion is very broad
  26. Straw Man
    taking the argument to the extreme and then attacking the extreme argument
  27. Red Herring
    avoiding the initial argument going off on a different but some what related topic
  28. Begging the Question
    • Petitio Principii, Vicious Circle
    • the wuestion presupposes you already accept the conclusion
  29. False Dichotomy
    • Bifurcation, False Dilemma, Black-and-White Fallacy, Either/Or Fallacy
    • Illigetimate inference in either/or
    • either you A or something really bad will happen
  30. Equivocation
    • a play on words having different meanings
    • based on a single term
  31. Amphiboly
    misinterpreting meanings 'slow deaf child area'
  32. Composition
    • is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
    • each atom in this piece of chalk is invisible so the chalk is invisible
  33. Division
    • reverse of composition
    • is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends of the erronious transference of an attribute from the whole (or a class) onto it's parts (or members)
  34. Special Pleading
    • a fallacy in which a person applies standards, principles, rules, etc. to others while proposing that he (or those he has a special interest in) should be exempt, without providing adequate justification for the exemption.
    • "Barbara accepts that all murderers should be punished for their crimes. Although she murdered Bill, Barbara claims she is an exception because she really would not like going to prison. Therefore, the standard of punishing murderers should not be applied to her."
Card Set
fallacies and their latin names with a description