A disease transmitted to people by food
two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food
Challenges to food safety
- Language and culture
- literacy and education
- unapproved suppliers
- high risk customers
- staff turnover
Victims of foodborne illness may experience the following
- lost work
- medical cost and long term disability
Kinds of contaminants
Pathogens are the greatest threat to food safety. They include certain viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria.
Contaminants that can include cleaners, sanitizers and polishes
Contaminants foreign objects that can get into food.
Five most common food handling mistakes;
- Purchasing food from unsafe sources
- failing to cook food correctly
- holding food at incorrect temperatures
- using contaminated equipment
- practicing poor personal hygiene
food is not held or stored at the correct temperature
not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogen
not cooled correctly
time temperature abuse
Pathogens can be transferred from one surface or food to another.
ways of cross contamination can occur;
- Contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking
- Ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces
- contaminated food touches or drips fluids onto cooked or ready to eat food, as shown in the photo at left
- a good handler touches contaminated good and then touches ready to eat food
- contaminated cleaning cloths touch food contact surfaces
Fail to wash their hands correctly after using the restroom is, cough or sneeze on food touches or scratch wounds and then touch food, work while sick
Poor personal hygiene
Equipment is not cleaned and sanitized correctly
Poor cleaning and sanitizing
Temperature control for safety
TCS food are
Milk and dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, shell eggs, shellfish, baked potatoes, heat treated plant food, tofu or other soy protein, sliced melons, cut tomatoes, cut leafy greens, untreated garlic and oil mixtures
Populations at high risk for foodborne illness
- Elderly people
- preschool aged children
- people with compomised immune system
United states department of agriculture
Regulates and inspects meat, poultry, and eggs. Regulates food that crosses state boundaries or involves more than one state.
Agencies that assist the FDA, USDA, and state and local health departments. Also assist in investigating outbreaks.
CDC and PHS
Food and drug administration
Inspects all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. Regulates food transported across state lines.
Regulatory authorities write or adopt code that regulates retail and food service operations.
State and local regulatory authorities.
Responsibilities related to food safety
- investigation complaints and illness
- issuing lisence
- approving condstuction
- reviewing and approving HACCP plans.
Diarrhea, Vomiting, Fever, Nausea, Abdominal cramps, Jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and eyes)
Symptoms of food borne illness
Characteristics of Bacteria
- Location-bacteria can be found almost everywhere. they live in and on our bodies. some types of bacteria keeps us healthy while others cause illness.
- Detection-bacteria cannot be seen,smelled or tasted
- Growth-if fat tom conditions are correct, bacteria will grow in rapid numbers.
- Prevention-the most important way to prevent bacteria from causing a foodborne illness is to control time and temperatire
How to prevent bacteria from causing food borne illness
Control time and temperature
FAT TOM. Bacteria needs these 6 Condition
Temperature danger zone
41F - 135F
- even more from
- 70F - 120 F
A value of ___________ is highly acidic while ___________ is highly alkaline.
0 to 14.0
Major bacteria that cause food borne illness
- salmonella typhi
- shingella spp
Only lives in humans. People with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract.
found in feces of humans with illness
found intestines of cattle. can contaminate meat during slaughtering.
Characteristic of viruses
- Location-viruses are carried by human beings and animals. they require a living host to grow.
major viruses that cause foodborne illness
Types of stuff that can cause foodborne illness
How to store chemicals from food
- never be stored above food or food-contact surfaces
Make sure that products you receive are from safe sources
-supervise product deliveries
-use approved suppliers who practice food defense
-request that delivery vehicles are locked or sealed.
Monitor the security of products in the facility
-limit access to prep and storage areas. Locking storage areas is one way.
-create a system for handling damaged products
-store chemicals in a secure location
-train staff to spot food defense threats
know who is in your facility
-Limit access to prep and storage areas.
-identify all visitors, and verify chemicals
-conduct background checks on staff.
Keep information related to food defense accessible
Identify what you will do and who you will contact if there is suspicious activity or a threat at your operation.
Responding to a foodborne illness outbreak
- Gathering information
- notifying authorities
- segregating product
- documenting information
- identifying staff
- cooperating with authorities
- reviewing procedures
A pathogen carried in the nose of 30 to 50 percent of healthy adults. About 20 to 35 percent of healthy adults carry it on their skin. Food handlers transfer this type of bacteria to food when they touch the infected area of their bodies and then touch the food without washing their hands.
temperature on water to wash hands and how long
Flow of food
how to prevent cross-contamination
- using seperate equipment
- cleaning and sanitizing
- prepping food at different times
- buying prepared food
Time temperature control food has been abused any time it remains between _______- this is called the temperature danger zone because pathogens grow in this range.
41F and 135F
Pathogens grow much faster in what temperature?
70F and 125F
Food is being temperature abused whenever it handles in the following ways;
- Cooked to the wrong internal temperature
- held at the wrong temperature
- cooled or reheated incorrectly
Ways to avoid time-temperature abuse
- time and temperature control
- corrective actions
types of time and temperature
- Bimetallic stemmed thermometers
A thermometer used to measure the temperature of food must be accurate to what temperature?
+/-2F or +/-1C
Receive cold tcs food at
41F or lower
Receive oysters, mussles, clams, and scallops at air temperature ___ and an internal temperature no greater than _. Once received, the shellfish must be cooled to ___or lower in ______
- Airtemp- 45F
- internal temp - 50F
- shellfish cooled - 41F
receive shucked shell fish at temp
Receive 45F or lower. Cool the milk to 41F or lower in four hours
Solid frozen with no signs of breakage or crystallized ice.
Ready to eat food stored for how many days in what temp?
7 days at 41F or lower
Store TCS food at an internal temperature of what?
41 F or lower or 135F or higher
storage units must have one air temperature. it must be accurate ----------.
+/-3F or +/-1.5C
top to down
- Ready to eat
- sea food
- whole cuts of beef and porl
- ground meat and ground fish
- whole and ground poultry
ways of thawing frozen food
- running water
thaw food in a cooler, keeping its temperature at ___________
41F or lower
submerge food under running water drinkable water at ______..
70F or lower. never above 41F for longer than four hours
41F or lower
Cooking Poultry, stuffing made with fish
165F for 15 sec
Ground meat, injected meat, shell eggs
155F for 15 Sec
seafood , steaks, shell eggs that will be served immediately
145F for 15 sec
roast of pork,
145F for 4 mins.
Cool tcs food from ______ or lower within six hours
135F tp 41F
reheating tcs food at what temperature
165F for 15 sec
ready to eat reheating temp
hold hot food at what temp?
Hold cold food at what temp?
Hazard analysis critical control point
Seven HACCP principles
- Conduct a hazard analysis
- determine critical control points
- establish critical limits
- establish monitoring procedures
- identify corrective actions
- verify that the system works
- establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
water 171F soak items for atleast 30 sec
high temp dish washing machine
Manual dish washing
110F water temp