- refers to the notion of independence, which encourages the client to exercise freedom of choice and behavior when those actions do not infringe upon the rights and beliefs of others.
- Autonomy is promoted versus dependence upon a counselor
- often defined as "above all do no harm" and viewed by many as the most critical of the five ethical principles.
- In brief, this concept promotes the idea of avoiding any actions or intentions that may place the client at risk of harm
- refers the counselor's responsibility to "do good".
- Counselors contribute to the well-being of clients.
- should be conceptualized as treating others equally, but in relation to their individual differences.
- when treating clients differently in order to meet their unique needs, counselors operate from a sound rational for such actions.
- refers to the trusting nature of the therapeutic relationship built upon a demonstrated reliability and authenticity toward the client.
- Counselors promote this by honoring commitments and obligations to clients
ACA ethical decision making
- 1. IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM: gather objective information (e.g. facts) and gain clarification of the problem.
- 2. APPLY THE ETHICAL STANDARDS (ACA and/or ASCA): follow the course of action indicated by the standards or continue this model for more complex dilemmas.
- 3. DETERMINE THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS OF THE DILEMMA: examine the problem from all angles and consider:
- a. the five moral principals for guiding ethical practices
- b. professional literature
- c. consulting with professional colleagues, supervisors, and/or professional associations
- 4. GENERATE POTENTIAL COURSES OF ACTION: brainstorm possible solutions
- 5. CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ALL OPTIONS AND DETERMINE A COURSE OF ACTION: Assess each option and possible consequences to each option and then select the most promising option(s).
- 6. EVALUATE THE SELECTED COURSE OF ACTION: consider any possible ethical issues associated with your option(s). If your course of action presents ethical issues, then reevaluate the initial problem and original options.
- 7. IMPLEMENT THE COURSE OF ACTION: carry out your plan and follow up on the situation.
ASCA STEPS (Solutions to Ethical Problems in Schools)
- 1. Define the problem emotionally and intellectually
- 2. Apply the ASCA Ethical Standards and the law
- 3. Consider the students' chronological and developmental levels.
- 4. Consider the setting, parental rights, and minors' rights.
- 5. Apply the moral principals
- 6. Determine your potential courses of action and their consequences.
- 7. Evaluate the selected action.
- 8. Consult
- 9. Implement the course of action
"IN LOCO PARENTIS"
Protecting the rights of children while those children are in our care during the school day is also emphasized in this common-law doctrine.
a concept grounded in ethical principles that refer to a client's right to privacy in the practice of counseling.
- a related construct to confidentiality and is a legal term that refers to the requirement to protect the privacy between counselor and student.
- not recognized by law in many states, this school counselor and student relationship
ASCA's Position on Confidentiality
"The professional responsibility of school counselors is to fully respect the right to privacy of those with whom they enter counseling relationships. Professional school counselors must keep abreast of and adhere to all laws, policies and ethical standards pertaining to confidentiality. This confidentiality must not be abridged by the counselor except when there is clear and present danger to the student and/or other persons.
EXCEPTIONS to Confidentiality/Privileged Communication
- in circumstances of harm to self/others (can include property)
- court order
- when the client provided written permission to share his or her disclosures made during counseling sessions
- some school divisions require school counselors to breach confidentiality and to inform the parent if the child is engaging in sexual activity or drug use, or if the student is pregnant
Filtered Confidential Information
considered that which is true and accurate and shared in a sensitive and caring manner
In cases of Divorce, ASCA avows…
"in cases of divorce or separation, school counselors exercise a good-faith effort to keep both parents informed, maintaining focus on the student and avoiding supporting one parent over another in divorce proceedings."
In cases of guardians and noncustodial parents ASCA…
- provide them with information that the school counselor deems helpful to the student and family with the custodial parent's knowledge
- be aware of any restraining orders that may exist to ensure information is shared only with parents and guardians legally eligible to receive information