What is Operational Art?
The use of creative thinking by commanders and staffs to design strategies, campaigns, and major operations and organize and employ military forces (JP 3-0).
What is described as "the cognitive approach by commanders and staffs�supported by their skill, knowledge, experience, creativity, and judgment�to develop strategies, campaigns, and operations to organize and employ military forces by integrating ends, ways, and means"?
What is Operational Design?
The conception and construction of the intellectual framework that underpins joint operation plans (OPLANs) and their subsequent execution (JP 3-0).
What are the 4 questions to applying Operational Art (Ends, Ways, Means & Risk)?
- What are the objectives and desired end state? (Ends)
- What sequence of actions is most likely to achieve those objectives and end state? (Ways)
- What resources are required to accomplish that sequence of actions? (Means)
- What is the likely chance of failure or unacceptable results in performing that sequence of actions? (Risk)
What are the 12 Principles of Joint Operations?
- Economy of Force
- Unity of Command
- (MOOSE MUSS RPL)
What is the principle of 'Objective'?
To direct every military operation twoard a clearly defined, decisive and achievable goal.
What is the priniciple of 'Offensive'?
Actions whose purpose is to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative.
What is the principle of 'Mass'?
Concentrates the effects of combat power at the most advantageous place and time to produce decisive results.
What is the principle of 'Maneuver'?
It places the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power.
What is the principle of 'Economy of Force'?
It allocates maximum combat power on primary efforts while expending minumum essential combat power on secondary efforts.
What is the principle of 'Unity of Effort'?
One responsible commander for every objective.
What is the principle of 'Security'?
It prevents the enemy from acquiring an unexpected advantage.
What is the principle of 'Surprise'?
It allows friendly forces to strike at a time or place or in a manner for which the enemy is unprepared.
What is the principle of 'Simplicity'?
It increases the probability that plans and operations will be executed as intended by preparing clear, uncomplicated plans and concise orders.
What is the principle of 'Restraint'?
- It limits collateral damage and prevents the unnecessary use of force.
- It is expressed in the ROE.
What is the principle of 'Perseverance'?
It ensures the commitment necessary to attain the national strategic end state. It involves preparation for measured, protracted military operations. Requires patience, persistence, and resolve
What is the principle of 'Legitimacy'?
It maintains legal and moral authority in the conduct of operations.
How many traditional Principles of War are there?
What are the three additional Principles of War for the United States Armed Forces?
What are the elements of Operational Art?
- End state and conditions
- Center of gravity*
- Decisive points*
- Lines of operations and lines of effort*
- Operational reach*
- Phasing and transitions
What is End State and Conditions?
A set of desired future conditions the commander wants to exist when an operation ends.
What is Center of Gravity?
A center of gravity (COG) is the source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom of action, or will to act. Centers of gravity are not limited to military forces and can be either physical or moral.
What is a Decisive Point?
A geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contribute materially to achieving success (JP 5-0).
What do Lines of Operation and Lines of Effort do?
Lines of operations (LOO) and lines of effort (LOE) link objectives to the end state.
What is a Line of Operation?
A line that defines the directional orientation of a force in time and space in relation to the enemy and that links the force with its base of operations and objectives.
What is a Line of Effort?
A line that links multiple tasks using the logic of purpose rather than geographical reference to focus efforts toward establishing operational and strategic conditions.
What is Operational Reach?
- The distance and duration across which a joint force can successfully employ military capabilities (JP 3-0).
- The limit of a unit�s operational reach is its culminating point.
What is Basing?
- A basing or �base� is a locality from which operations are projected or supported (JP 4-0).
- Two categories of overseas base: Permanent, nonpermanent
What is Tempo?
The relative speed and rhythm of military operations over time with respect to the enemy.
What are Phases and Transitions?
- A phase is a planning and execution tool used to divide an operation in duration or activity.
- Transitions mark a change of focus between phases or between the ongoing operation and execution of a branch or sequel.
What is a Culminating Point?
That point in time and space at which a force no longer possesses the capability to continue its current form of operations.
What is Risk?
- Risk, uncertainty, and chance are inherent in all military operations.
- When commanders accept risk, they create opportunities to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative and achieve decisive results..
- Successful commanders assess and mitigate risk continuously throughout the operations process.
What are the Elements of Operational Design?
- Military end state*
- Center of gravity*
- Decisive points*
- Lines of operation / lines of effort*
What is Termination?
Effective planning cannot occur without a clear understanding of the end state and the conditions that must exist to end military operations.
What is the Military End State?
Set of required conditions that defines achievement of all military objectives.
What is an Objective?
A clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goal toward which every military operation should be directed.
What are Effects?
Physical and/or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect.
What are desired and undesired effects?
- Desired effect: a condition that can support achieving an associated objective.
- Undesired effect: a condition that can inhibit progress toward an objective.
What are the three factors of Center of Gravity analysis?
- Critical Capabilities
- Critical Requirements
- Critical Vulnerabilities
What is Center of Gravity analysis?
An analytical tool to help JFCs analyze friendly and adversary sources of strength as well as weaknesses and vulnerabilities.
What is are Direct and Indirect Approaches?
- The approach is the manner in which a commander contends with a COG.
- A direct approach: attacks the enemy�s COG or principal strength by applying combat power directly against it.
- An indirect approach: attacks the enemy�s COG by applying combat power against a series of decisive points that lead to the defeat of the COG while avoiding enemy strength.
What is Anticipation?
- The consideration of what might happen and the signs that may bring the possible event to pass.
- Anticipation is key to effective planning.
- Anticipation is not without risk!
What is Operational Reach?
Operational reach is the distance and duration across which a joint force can successfully employ military capabilities.
What is Culmination?
That point in time and/or space at which the operation can no longer maintain momentum.
What four factors should Commanders consider when arranging operations?
How are Forces and Functions attacked?
Adversary forces and functions are attacked concurrently to create the greatest possible friction between friendly and adversary forces and capabilities.
Which elements are common to Operational Art and Operational Design?
- Centers of Gravity
- Decisive Points,
- Lines of Operation/Lines of Effort
- Operational Reach
What is an analytical tool to help JFCs analyze friendly and adversary sources of strength as well as weaknesses and vulnerabilities?
Center of Gravity.