radiation biology

  1. What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
    • 1. prophase
    • 2. metaphase
    • 3. anaphase
    • 4. telophase
  2. Explain the first stage of mitosis, prophase?
    • 1. the cell enters prophase when it begins to divide
    • 2. the replicated chromosomes (chromatids) become visible
    • 3. the mitotic apparatus appears
  3. Explain the second stage of mitosis, metaphase?
    • 1. 'position changing'
    • 2. the chromatids align on centre of spindle attached by their centromeres
  4. Explain the third phase of mitosis, anaphase?
    • 1. the 'apart phase'
    • 2. the centromeres separate
  5. Explain the fouth stage of mitosis, telophase? 
    • 1. the 'end phase'
    • 2. mitotic apparatus disappears
    • 3. chromosomes uncoil
    • 4. the nuclear envelope re-appears 
  6. What is function of the mitochondria? 
    it is where the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced in a cell aka the powerhouse of a cell, where all the energy is stored
  7. What causes x ray photons to ionise in tissues?
    Each x ray photon that interacts by either photoelectric absorption or Compton scatter causes further ionisation in surrounding atoms

    Most ionisations occur in atoms that make up non-critical cell structures, such as the cytoplasm, 
  8. In which 3 ways does molecular change occur?
    • 1. RNA
    • 2. DNA
    • 3. Enzymes
  9. What are the 2 effects of radiation on the cell?
    Ionising radiation has enough energy to disrupt chemical bonds either by direct or indirect effect. 
Card Set
radiation biology