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Physics AS definitions
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Acceleration
Change in velocity divided by time taken
Speed
Distance travelled divided by time taken
Velocity
Displacement divided by time taken
Displacement
The straight line distance from a reference point in a single specified direction
Vector
Quantities that have both magintude and direction
Scalar
Quantities that are fully defined by by magnitude only
Equilibrium
No resultant force
No resultant moment
Moment
Force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the pivot
Principle of moments
Sum of clockwise moments is equal to sum of anti-clockwise moments when the object is in equilibrium about the same pivot
Centre of gravity
The single point where the entire weight of a body appears to act
Couple
A pair of equal and opposite forces whose lines of action do not coincide
Torque of a couple
One of the forces multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the forces
Density
Mass divided by volume
Pressure
Force divided by area
Spring constant
Force divided by extension
Hooke's Law
Extension is directly proportional to force provided the elastic limit has not been exceeded
Stress
Force divided by cross-sectional area
Strain
Extension divided by original length
Young's Modulus
Tensile stress divided tensile strain
Ductile material
Can be easily and permenantly stretched into thin wires
Elastic
Materials return to their original shape and size when the applied force is removed
Elastic limit
The maximum load up to which the material can regain its original shape and size when the load is removed
Plastic
Material does not return to its original shape and size when the load is removed
Weight
The force of gravity on the mass of a body
Joule
The work done when a force of 1N moves its point of application by 1m in the direction of the force
Kinetic energy
The energy of a body due to movement
Newton
The force needed to give an acceleration of 1ms
^{-2}
to a mass of 1kg
Graviational potential energy
The energy a body has due to its position
Power
Work done divided by time
Work
Force multiplied by distance moved in the direction of the force
Braking distance
Distance travelled from when the brakes are applied until the car comes to a stop
Thinking distance
Distance travelled during the drivers reaction time before the brakes are applied
=speed x reaction time
Stopping distance
Thinking distance + braking distance
UTS
The maximum stress a material can withstand before fracture
Strain energy (3 methods)
Area under F-x graph
Thinking distance
= speed x reaction time
Gradient of displacement-time graph
velocity
Gradient of a velocity-time graph
acceleration
Area under a velocity-time graph
displacement
Author
jpopat
ID
190684
Card Set
Physics AS definitions
Description
Physics AS definitions
Updated
2013-04-14T19:57:34Z
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