1. Median
    The median plane is the midline longitudinal plane dividing the head and the torso into right nad left halves. The presence of the sectioned midline of the vertebral coumn and spinal cord is charcteristic of this plane. The median plane is the middle sagittal (mid-sagittal) plane.
  2. Sagittal
    The coronal or frontal plane is a longitudinal plane dividing the body (head, torso, limbs) ori tis parts into front and back halves or parts.
  3. Coronal, Frontal
    The coronal or frontal plane is a longitudinal plane dividing the body (head, torso, limbs) or its parts into front and back halves or parts.
  4. Transverse, Cross
    The transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower halves or parts 9cross sections) It is perpendicular to the longitudinal planes. Transverse planes may be horizontal planes of the upright body. Transverse planes are call "axial' or "transaxial" sections/slices by radiologists.
  5. Cranial, Superior, Rostral
    These terms refer to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure of the body.lThese terms are not used with respect to the limbs.
  6. Anterior, Ventral
    These terms refer to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body. The term "anterior" is preferred.
  7. Posterior, Dorsal
    These terms refer to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body. The term "posterior" is preferred.
  8. Medial
    This term refers to a structure that is closer to the median plane than another structure in the body. "Medial" is not synonymous with "median".
  9. Lateral
    This term refers to a structure that is further away from the median plan than another structure in the body.
  10. Proximal
    Emplyed only with reference to the limbs, this term refers to a struture being closer to the median plane or root of the limb than another structure in the limb.
  11. Distal
    Employed only with referene to the limbs, this term refers to a structure being further away from teh median plane or the root of the limb than another structure in the limb.
  12. Caudal, Inferior
    These terms refer to a structure being closer to the feet or the lower part of the body than another structure in teh body. These terms are not used with respect to the limbs.
  13. Superficial, Deep
    The term "superficial" is synonymous with external, the term "deep" with internal. Related to the reference point on the chest wall, a structure closer to the surface of the body is superficial; a structure furhter away from the surface is deep.
  14. Ipsilaterl, Contralateral
    The term "ipsilateral" means "on the same side' (in htis case, as thereferce point); "contraletral" means "on the opposite side" of the reference point.
  15. Frontal
  16. Temporal
  17. Orbital
    eye, cavity/walls
  18. Nasal
    nose, cavity/walls
  19. Buccal
  20. Oral
    mouth cavity
  21. Mandibular
    lower jaw
  22. Anterior Cervical
    front of neck
  23. Lateral Cervical
    side of neck
  24. Supraclavicular
    above clavicle
  25. Pectoral
    anterior chest
  26. Abdominal
  27. Inguinal
  28. Pelvic
  29. Pubic
    genital region
  30. Pudendal
    femal genitals
  31. Perineal
    between pubis and coccyx
  32. Deltoid
    shoulder/upper arm
  33. Axillary
  34. Antecubital
    front of elbow
  35. Antebrachial
  36. Carpal
  37. Hand: Palmar
  38. Hand: Digital
  39. Coxal
  40. Femoral
  41. Patellar
    knee cap
  42. Crural
  43. Fibular
    lateral leg
  44. Tarsal
  45. Foot: Dorsum
  46. Foot: Digital
  47. Parietal
    top and sides of head
  48. Occipital
    back of head
  49. Scapular
    shoulder blade
  50. Post. cervical/Nuchal
    back of neck
  51. Scapular
    shoulder blade
  52. Vertebral
    spinal column
  53. Paraspinal
    along side spinal column
  54. Thoracic
    posterior chest
  55. Lumbar
    lower back
  56. Sacroiliac
    vertebro-pelvic joint
  57. Sacral
    posterior pelvis
  58. coccygeal
    tail bone
  59. Acromial
    top of shoulder
  60. Deltoid
    shoulder/upper arm
  61. Brachial
  62. Cubital
  63. Antebrachial
  64. Carpal
  65. Hand: Dorsal
    back of hand
  66. Hand: Digital
  67. Gluteal
  68. Femoral
  69. Popliteal
    back of knee
  70. Crural
  71. Tarsal
  72. Foot: Plantar
  73. Foot: Digital
  74. Cranial Cavity
    Occupied by the brain and its coverings, cranial nerves, and blood vessels. The bony walls are lined by the dura mater.
  75. Vertebral Cavity
    Houses the spinal cord, its coverings, related vessels, and nerve roots. Dura mater is continouous with cranial dura at the faramen magnum.
  76. Thoracic Cavity
    contains the lungs, heart, and other structures (tubular airways, blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves) in the chest. The roof of the cavity is membranous, the floor is the muscular thoracic diaphragm. The middle has the mediastinum that separates it into left and right parts. The internal surface of each is lined with a serous membrane called pleura.
  77. Abdominal Cavity
    contains the gastrointestinal tract and related glands, the urinary tract, and great numbers of vessels and nerves, has muscular walls anterolaterally, the lower ribs and muscle laterally, and the lumbar vertebrae posteriorly. The roof isi the thoracic diaphragm. The abdominal and pelvic cavity are continous and share the muscular pelvic floor.
  78. Pelvic cavity
    contains the urinary bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs, has muscular walls anteriorly, bony walls laterally, and the sacrum posteriorly. The internal surface is lined by a serous membrane called the peritoneum.
  79. Epiphysis
    the end of a long bone or any part of a bone separated from teh main body of an immature bone by cartilage. It is largely cencellous bone, and its articulating surgace is lined with 3-5 mm of hyaline (articular) cartilage. The epiphysis is supplied by vessels from teh joint capsule.
  80. Diaphysis
    the diaphysis is the shaft or central part of a long bone, It has marrow-filled cavity (medullary cavity) surrounded by compact bone which is lined externally by periosteum and internally by endosteum.
  81. Articular Cartilage
    smooth, slippery, porous, malleable, insensitive, and bloodless. the degenerative process of arthritis involves the breakdown and fibrillation of articular cartilage.
  82. Periosteum
    fibrous, cellular, vascular, and highly sensitive life support sheath for bone, providing nutrient blood for bone cells and a source of osteoprogenitor cells. It does not cover articular cartilage.
  83. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone
    consists of interwoven beams (trabeculae) of bone in the epiphyses of long bones, the bodies of the vertebrae, and other bones without cavities. The spaces are filled with red or yellow marow and blood vessels.
  84. Compact Bone
    dense bone characerized in long bones by microscopic hollow cylinders of bone (haversian systems) interwonev with non-cylindrical lamellae of bone. It forms the stout walls of the diaphysis of long bones and the thinner outer surface of other bones whre there is no articular cartilage-e.g., the flat bones of the skull.
  85. Medullary cavity
    cavity of the diaphysis. It contains marrow: red in the young, turning to yellow in many long bones in maturity. It is lined by endosteal tissue (thin connective tissue with many osteoprogenitor cells).
  86. Red Marrow
    Red, gelatinous substance composed of red and white blood cells in a varitey of developmental forms 9hematopoietic tissue) and specialized capillaries (sinusoids) enmeshed in reticular tissue. In adults, red marrow is generally limited to the sternum, vertebrae, hip bones, clavicles, and cranial bones.
  87. Yellow Marrow
    fatty connective tissue that is not productive of blood cells. It replaces red marrow in the epiphyses and medullary cavities of long bones, and cancellous bone of other bones.
  88. Nutrient Artery/ Branches
    principal artery and major supplier of oxygen and nutrients to the shaft or body of a bone; its branches snake through the labyrinthine cnals of the haversian systems and other tubular cavitis of bones.
  89. Axial Skeleton
    Skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs and hyoid bone
  90. Appendicular Skeleton
    pectoral and pelvic girdles, bones of the arms, forearms, wrists, hands, thighs, legs, and feet.
  91. Fibrous joint
    Synarthroses- in articulating bones connected by fibrous tissue.
  92. Gomphoses
    teeth in their sockets
  93. Syndesmoses
    partly movable fibrous joints
  94. Cartilaginous joint
    synchondroses- immovable joints seen during growth
  95. Ampiarthroses
    partly movable-intevertebral disc
  96. Symphyses
    partly movable fibrocartilagious joints
  97. Synovial joint
    diarthroses-freely movable withinligamentous limits and the bony architecture.
  98. Types of synovial joints
    Ball & Socket; Hinge; Saddle; Ellipsoid; Pivot; Gliding
  99. Cranial Bones
    Occipital; Parietal; Frontal; Temporal; Ethmoid; Sphenoid
  100. Facial Bones
    Nasal; Vomer; Lacrimal; Zygomatic; Palatine; Maxilla; Mandible; Inferior Nasal Concha
Card Set