chapter 7 congress

  1. apportionment
  2. bicameral legislature
  3. bill
  4. cloture
    mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate
  5. Conference Committees
    joint committee created to iron out differences between Senate and House versions of a specific piece of legislation
  6. Congressional Review
    a process whereby Congress can nullify agency regulations by a joint resolution of legislative disapproval
  7. delegate
    role played by elected representatives who vote the way their constituents would want them to, regardless of their own opinions
  8. Discharge Petition
    petition that gives a majority of the House of Representatives the authority to bring an issue to the floor in the face of committee inaction
  9. divided government
    the political condition in which different political parties control the White House and Congress
  10. filibuster
     a formal way of halting action on a bill by means of long speeches or unlimited debate in the Senate
  11. hold
    a tactic by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor; stops the bill from coming to the floor until the hold is removed
  12. impeachment
  13. incumbency
  14. joint committee
    includes members from both houses of Congress; conducts investigations or special studies
  15. logrolling
    vote trading; voting yea to support a colleague's bill in return for a promise of future support
  16. majority leader
  17. majority party
  18. miniority party
  19. oversight
    congressional review of the activities of the agency, department, or office; determines if an agency, department, or office is carrying out its responsibilities as intended by Congress. Ex: Congressional hearing, GAO audit
  20. party cacus or conference
  21. pocket veto
    if Congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill passed by both houses of Congress, without the president's signature, the bill is considered vetoed
  22. politico
    role played by elected representatives who act as trustees or as delegates, depending on the issue
  23. pork
    legislation that allows representatives to bring home the bacon to their districts in the form of public works programs, military bases, or other programs designed to benefit their districts directly; improves a member's chance for reelection
  24. redistricting
  25. select commitee
    temporary committee appointed for a specific purpose, such as conducting a special investigation or study
  26. senatorial courtesy
  27. seniority
    time of continuous service on a committee
  28. speaker of the house
    the only officer of the House of Representatives specifically mentioned in the Constitution; elected at the beginning of each new Congress by the entire House; traditionally a member of the majority party.  The speaker presides over the House, oversees House business, is the official spokesperson for the House, and is second in line of presidential succession.  Also, the speaker of the House is the House liaison with the president and carries great political influence, and also ensures the smooth passage of party-backed legislation through the House.
  29. standing commitee
  30. trustee
    role played by elected representatives who listen to constituents' opinions and then use their best judgment to make final decisions
  31. veto
  32. war powers act
  33. whip
     one of the several representatives who keep close contact with all members and take nose counts on key votes, prepare summaries of bills, and in general act as communication links within the party
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chapter 7 congress