chapter 6 civil rights

  1. affirmative action
  2. black codes
  3. brown v. board of education
    U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the 14th amendment's guarantee of equal protection; marked the end of legal segregation in the U.S.
  4. civil rights
  5. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Legislation passed by congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting. It helped the country move past segregation, and over come employment discrimination. This led to the Supreme Court ruling that employers could be found liable for discrimination if the effect of their employment practices was to exclude African Americans from certain positions. • Outlawed arbitrary discrimination in voter registration and expedited voting rights lawsuits.• Barred discrimination in public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce.• Authorized the department of justice to initiate lawsuits to desegregate public facilities and schools. • Provided for the withholding of funds from discriminatory state and local programs. • Prohibited discrimination in employment on grounds of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.• Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  6. de facto discrimination
    racial discrimination that results from practice (such as housing patterns or other social factors) rather than the law.
  7. De Jure Segregation
    racial segregations that is a direct result of law or official policy
  8. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    federal agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing
  9. Equal protection act
    sections of the 14th amendment that guarantees that all citizens receive “equal protection of the laws”
  10. equal rights Amendment
    proposed amendment that would bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments
  11. 15th  Amendment
    specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves  Guaranteed the rights of citizens to vote regardless of race, color
  12. 14th amendment
    guarantees equal Protection and due process of the laws to all U.S. Citizens
  13. grandfather clause
    voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test
  14. jim crow laws
    laws enacted by southern states that discriminated against blacks by creating whites only schools, theaters, hotels
  15. 19th Amendment
    guaranteed women the right to vote
  16. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896):
    Plessy challenged a Louisiana statue requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The Court found that separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment
  17. Strict Scrutiny
     a heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice
  18. suffrage movement
  19. suspect classification
  20. 13th amendment
    bans slavery in the United States
  21. Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972
    bars educational institutions receiving federal funds from discriminating against female students
Card Set
chapter 6 civil rights