Miscellaneous Chemistry

  1. emperical formula
    the lowest molar ratio between elements
  2. molecular formula
    the actual formula for a molecule (multiple of the emperical formula); doesn't guarantee a unique identity
  3. isomers
    different substances with the same molecular formula
  4. solute
    the substance being dissolved
  5. solvent
    the substance dissolving a solute
  6. solution
    a homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent
  7. molarity
    moles solute/ liter solution
  8. molality
    moles solute/ kg solvent
  9. dilution formula
  10. dual nature of matter
    particles of matter can also act like waves
  11. ground state
    the resting place (lowest energy) for e-
  12. excited state
    when e- have been raised to a higher energy state than normal
  13. absorption
    when e- move to a higher ordit due to added energy
  14. emission
    e- move to a lower orbit and release energy
  15. heisenbergs uncertainty principle
    the position and momentum of an electron can never simultaneously be determined
  16. aufbau principle
    the buildup pattern of electrons (1s, 2s, 2p...)
  17. hunds rule
    e- spread out into open orbitals in the same subshell and have the same spin
  18. pauli's exclusion principle
    no two e- in the same subshell can have the same set of quantum numbers
  19. diamagnetic
    all e- in an element are paired
  20. paramagnetic
    one or more e- in an element are left unpaired
  21. shielding
    the outermost e-  is shielded from the pull of the nucleus from the inner e-
  22. ionization energy
    the amount of energy required to remove the outermost e- from an atom in its gaseous state
  23. electron affinity
    the amount of energy given off when an element gains an electron
  24. intermolecular forces (IMFs)
    attractions between molecules
  25. london dispesion forces (LDFs)
    temporary attractions between any colliding molecule
  26. dipole-dipole IMFs
    attractions between polar molecules
  27. hydrogen bonding
    unusually strong dipole-dipole that results with a molecule that contains H attached to F, O, or N
  28. ionic boning
    electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
  29. catalyst
    a substance that lowers the Ea for a reaction
  30. LeChatelier's Principle
    a system at equilibrim will resist change by shifting in the directin needed to minimize the impact of the cange
  31. Arrhenius acid/base definition
    • acid: produces H+
    • base: produces OH-
  32. Bronsted-Lowry acid/base definition
    • acid: donates H+
    • base: accepts H+
  33. Lewis acid/base definition
    • acid: accepts e-
    • base: donates e-
  34. strong bases
    IA hydroxides
  35. common weak bases
    • conjugate base of weak acids
    • ammonia and its derivatives
  36. buffers
    • a weak acid and its conjugate base
    • a weak base and its conjugate cid
  37. endpoint
    indicator changes colors
  38. midpoint
    1/2 way to the equivalence point
  39. diffusion
    the process of a gas at high concentration spreading itself on to areas of lower concentration
  40. effusion
    the process of a gas traveling out of its container through a small hole into a vacuum
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Miscellaneous Chemistry