Non-Systems- Safety/ Research/ T&L

  1. Different transmission based precautions
    • airborne precautions: (measles, TB, varicella), respiratory protection must be worn in room
    • droplet precautions: (flu, strep, meningitis, rubella, mumps), may share room w/ person w/ same active infection, wear a mask when working w/in 3 feet
    • contact precautions: (GI, skin/wound infections, scabies, impetigo, herpes), use gloes, use gowns if will be in very close contact
  2. Accessibility Requiriments
    • Ramp: 8.3% grade, 1' to every 1"
    • doorway: minimum 32"
    • hallway: 36"
    • bathroom sink: >29" tall, 17" depth
    • bathroom toilet: 17-19"
  3. Documentation Recommendations
    • must demonstrate skilled care
    • must support billing codes
    • include missed or canceled appts
    • must demonstrate progress
  4. Ethical Principles
    • autonomy: wishes of competent individuals, self-determination
    • beneficence: health care providers to act for the benefit of others
    • confidentiality: holding of professional secrets or discussions
    • duty: obligations that individuals have to others in society
    • fidelity: moral duty to keep commitments that have been promised
    • justice: quality of being just and fair
    • nonmaleficence: do no harm
    • paternalism: when someone fails to recognize another individuals right and autonomy
    • rights: ability to take advantage of a moral entitlement to do something or not to do something
    • veracity: obligation of health care providers to tell the truth
  5. Nagi Model
    • Pathology: interruption of interference in body's normal processes (spinal cord tumor at T12)
    • Impairment: loss or abnormality at tissue, organ, or body system level (loss of motor function below T12)
    • Functional limitation: ability to perform an action or skill in a normal manner (unable to ambulate)
    • disability: any restriction or inability to perfrom a socially defined role (can't continue to work)
  6. ICF Model
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  7. Rules for PTA supervision
    • must always be accesible by phone when PTA is working
    • must have regularly scheduled & documented conferences
    • available upon PTA request
    • at least once a month must see pt to update POC, discharge, etc
    • evaluate needs for recommendations for outside services
  8. Medicare & Medicaid
    • health insurance for pts over 65 yo and disabled
    • Part A: benefits for care in hospitals, outpt diagnostic services, extended care facilities, hospice, short term care, part A is automatic
    • Part B: outpt care, physician services, services ordered by physicia, part B is voluntary
    • Medicaid: provides basic medical services to the economically indigent population- low income
    • use current procedural terminology codes to bill
  9. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • self actualization: realize on'es full potential as a person
    • esteem needs: the need to feel good about oneself and capabilities
    • affiliative needs: need for security, stability, and safe environment
    • physiological needs: need for basic things like food, water, shelter
  10. Health Belief Model
    • perceived susceptibility: one is at risk for problem
    • perceived severity: the health problem is serious
    • perceived benefit: changing the behavior will reduce the threat
    • perceived barriers: recognize obstacles required to change
    • cues to action: strategies to activate readiness
    • self-efficacy: ability to change behavior
  11. Stages of Change
    • precontemplation:  not intending to change
    • contemplation: intending to change in near future
    • preparation: making a plan to change behavior
    • action: implementing plan to change
    • maintainence: continuation of behavior change
  12. Domains of Learning
    • affective domain: attitudes, values, emotions
    • cognitive domain: knowledge & understanding
    • psychomotor domain: physical action or motor skill
  13. Stages of Dying
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Depression
    • Acceptance
  14. Stages of Evidence Based Medicine
    • identify a problem
    • focus clinical question (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome)
    • search literature
    • crittically appraise
    • integrate relative findings
  15. Levels of Evidence
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  16. Types of Research
    • Descriptive: recording, analyzing, and interpretting conditions that exist for purpose of classification and understanding clinical phenomenom
    • experimental: comparing 2 or more conditions for purpose of determining cause and effect
    • exploratory: examin the dimensions of a phenomenom of interest and it's relationship to other factors
    • qualitative: data from observation, interviews or verbal interactions, that focus on the meaning
    • quantitative: data are measurments of outcomes that can be subject to analysis
  17. Ethics for human subjects must maintain
    • Respect for persons: right for self-determination
    • beneficience: keep well being of subjects first
    • justice: fair treatment of subjects
  18. Types of Data and MEasurement
    • Continuous: any value along a continous scale, accuracy limited by measuring instrument (weight, ROM, distance, time)
    • Discrete: measured in whole units (HR, number of visits to PT clinic)
    • Dichotomous: discrete data limited to only 2 values (male or female)
    • Qualitative: categorical data representing different categories distinguised by non-numeric characteristics (blood type, eye color, hand dominance)
    • Quantitative: numbers that represent counts of measurements, number assigned to an object or even
    • Nominal: qualitative rather than quantitative, mutually exclusive and exhaustive (blood type, breath sound, type of arthritis)
    • Ordinal: ranking scale, based on property of variable, but intervals may not be equal or known (MMT, levels of assistance)
    • Interval: intervals between numbers are equal but no true 0 point (body temp)
    • Ratio: intervals between numbers are equal with a true zero point (ROM, distance walked, time)
  19. Measurement Validity
    • Face validity: measurement appears to test what it is supposed to
    • Content validity: measurement reflects meaningful elements of a construct & items in a test reflect the content domain of interest
    • Construct validity: how a theoretical construct is measured by a test or measure
    • Concurrent validity: interpretation is justified by comparing to a "gold" standard
  20. Standard deviation
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  21. Positively skewed graph
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  22. Sensitivity
    • Percentage of people who test positive for specific disease
    • SNOUT: high sensitivity means that a negative diagnostic test rules out the diagnosis
  23. Specificity
    • Specificity percentage of people who test negative for a specific disease who do not have the disease
    • SPIN: high specificity means that a positive test rules in the diagnosis
Card Set
Non-Systems- Safety/ Research/ T&L
Non-Systems- Safety/ Research/ T&L